2015 Conference Program

April 8 to 11, 2015 - San Francisco, California

Beyond the Binary

2015 Conference Program

PICASA Album of Conference

Questions may be directed to Marcia Green at mgreen@sfsu.edu.

Corrections can be directed to dore.ripley@gmail.com.

Wednesday, April 8 - Sessions 1:00 PM to 6:15 PM

Registration Mezzanine

HERA Board Meeting 6:30-9:30 PM

Session I - 1:0o to 2:15 PM

1. Cultures of Media Expression - Ball Room
Chair: Lisette Davies Ward

Blurred Lines: Fox News/Faux News, Fiction/Nonfiction, and Poe's Law
Richard Hanley, University of Delaware

Publishing Blogs: Eliminating the Taboo
Carrie Murray, Pitt Community College

The 'Grey Areas': Beyond Binary Oppositions of Stereotypical Gender Roles in The Bachelorette
Lisette Davies Ward, Claremont Graduate University

2. Beyond Literary Binaries: Identity in Poetry and Fiction - Lombard Room
Chair: Ezekiel Craigo

Moving Towards a Multifaceted Understanding of Central American Poetry
Raquel Chiquillo, University of Houston-Downtown

Neither/Both: Overcoming Binaries in Written on the Body
Emily Robles, California State University, Fullerton

No Sex, Gender, Desire, and Language in Jeanette Winterson's 'Written on the Body'
Ezekiel Crago, University of California, Riverside

3. Interdisciplinary Media Spectrums: Power, Good/Evil, Life/Death - Coit Tower Room
Chair: Lisa Graley

Beyond Good and Evil in the Films of the Brothers McDonagh
Helen Clare Taylor, Louisiana State University, Shreveport

The "Becoming" Beyond the Binary of Life and Death in Bergman's The Seventh Seal and Bill T. Jones's Still/Here
Lisa Graley, University of Louisiana at Lafayette

Wednesday, April 8, 2015

Session II - 2:15 to 3:30 PM

4. Beyond Good and Evil in Art and Music - Ball Room
Chair: James Larner

The "Promessi Sposi" of Don Carlos: A Verdian treatment of Manzonian Justice
Helen Clare Taylor, Louisiana State University, Shreveport

Beyond Good and Evil: Encountering Darkness in the Works of Picasso and Stravinsky
Annie Loechle, James Larner, Marian University

5. New Conceptions: Pedagogy - Lombard Room
Chair: Jordan Reed

Texts and Contexts: Placing New Media on the Continuum of Oral and Written Language
Ileana da Silva, San Francisco State University

Looking Below the Surface: Perspectives of Memory in American History Textbooks
Jordan Reed, Drew University

Wednesday, April 8, 2015

BREAK [coffee and tea]
Mezzanine 3:30 to 3:45 PM

Session III - 3:45 to 5:00 PM

6. New Historical Perspectives Ball Room
Chair: Adan Falcon

Subjective Histories: An Examination of the John Smith Narrative
John McHone

The Fictional History in Juan Rulfo's Pedro Paramo
Adan Falcon, San Francisco State University

7. Clashes and Monstrosities - Fisherman's Wharf Room
Chair: Leila May

Fever Eyes and Swordlike Thighs: Monstrous Bodies as Sites of the Abject in The Day of the Locust
Camille Johnson, California State University, Fullerton

Monstrous Binaries: An Approach to Teaching Mary Shelley's Frankenstein
Leila May, North Carolina State University

8. Pedagogical Innovations in Design, Fine Arts, and Writing - Lombard Room
Chair: Sherena Huntsman

Harmony of Tensions: An Approach to Composition in Fine Arts
Christina Kirchinger, University of Regensburg, Germany

Bound to Fail: The Dialectic Synthesis of Success and Failure in Foundation Design Studio
Sandy Litchfield, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Voicing the Self: Meshing Students' Individual Language of Expression Within Conventions of Standard Written English
Sherena Huntsman, Utah State University

9. Poetical Perspectives - Coit Tower Room
Chair: Jared Pearce

Motherland: Life/Death/Life
Chelsea Rushton, University of Calgary

Poems from The Annotated A Murder of One
Jared Pearce, William Penn University

Wednesday, April 8, 2015

Session IV - 5:00 to 6:15 PM

10. Reconceiving Literary Binaries: Shakespeare, Melville…and Beyond - Ball Room
Chair: Jessica Tooker

From Iago to Claggart and Beyond: Examining Binary Opposition within Literary Archetype
Derek Bobella, DePaul University

The Bluidie Tragedie o' Macbeth: The Complete Scots Mither Tongue Translation and Celtic Adaptation of Shakespeare's Scottish Play
Christopher Stevens, Indiana State University

Seeing Othello's Visage in Our Minds: Empathetic Witnessing in Shakespeare's Othello
Jessica Tooker, Indiana University

11. Pedagogical Innovations in Teacher Training and Music Programs - Fisherman's Wharf Room
Chair: Eric Lapin

Beyond Binary Identities: Intersectionality and Performance in Teachers' Training
Teresa Henriques, New University of Lisbon and Tomas Cabreira High School

Performing Arts: Rethinking Higher Education Music Programs
Eric Lapin, Clemson University

12. Reformulations - Lombard Room
Chair: Randall Horton

Reality Versus Image: Toward a Univocal Understanding of Form and Substance
Lauren Abrejera Bower, Loyola Marymount University

"(S)he's Lost Control": Queer Eroticism Towards Troilus in Troilus and Criseyde
Stephanie Camacho-Van Dyke, California State University, Fullerton

The Deception of Masculinity: Grief from Antiquity to Descartes
Randall Horton, Houston Community College

13. Performing Queer Identities - Coit Tower Room
Chair: Marcia Roberts-Deutsch

Vernon Lee: The "Tiger-Cat" Deconstructionist
Nicole Clawson, Brigham Young University

The Same Closet: The Performance of Gay Identity Inside the Rainbow Nation
Daniel Ciba, Tufts University

Queering the Binary, Questioning the boundaries: Gender in/as Performance
Marcia Roberts-Deutsch, University of Hawaii-Honolulu

6:30 to 9:30 PM

HERA Board Meeting - Ghiradelli Room

 

Thursday, April 9, 2015

Sessions, Registration, and Exhibits 8:30 AM to 6:30 PM

8 to 8:30 AM Coffee and Tea Mezzanine

Session V - 8:30 to 9:45 AM

14. Peoples and Personhood - Ghiradelli Room
Chair:

Prejudice Perpetuated: Questioning the Qualifications for Personhood from the Past into the Future
Melissa Dulebohn, San Francisco State University

Parens Patriae and Police Power: An Ethical Critique on the Justifications for Involuntary Civil Commitment of Persons with Mental Illnesses
Jonathan Cantarero, City University of New York School of Law

15. Feminist Transgressions, Strategies, and Advocacies - Fisherman's Wharf Room
Chair: Therese Tomaszek

Gentle Violence: Female Transgression and Proto-Feminism Within Horace Walpole's The Castle of Otranto
Donna Phillips, Claremont Graduate University

Queer Strategies of Alliance for Effective Feminist Organizing
Addison Davidove, Johnston Center for Integrative Studies, University of Redlands

Rebecca Harding Davis: Relentless Advocate or Reluctant Feminist?
Therese Tomaszek, Davenport University

16. Esthetic Configurations: Art, Design, and Clothing - Lombard Room
Chair: Nancy Hills

The Complexities and Importance of Dress in Jane Austen
Candy Winters, San Francisco State University

Clothing: An Event In History That Continues to Happen
Nancy Hills, Utah State University

17. Moving Beyond Curricular Binaries - Coit Tower Room
Chair: Sharmila Lodhia

Beyond Rescue-Reframing Advocacy and Intervention in the Women's Studies Classroom
Khanum Shaikh, California State University, Northridge

Gender, Culture, and the Force of American Freedom
Sharmila Lodhia, Santa Clara University

Thursday, April 9, 2015

Session VI - 9:45 to 11 AM

18. New Philosophical Spectrums - Ghiradelli Room
Chair: Justin Pack

Decidedly Undecided: A Brief History of Ambivalence
David Jenemann, University of Vermont

Arendt's Triads
Justin Pack, University of Oregon

19. Cultural Configurations and Permutations - Fisherman's Wharf Room
Chair: Shannon Goldman

The Blending of the Goddess Gemu and Buddhism in Musuo Culture
Krista Rodin, Northern Arizona University

Living the Dream, Hiding Actualities: Meta-Narrative and Meta-Culture in America
Jeremy Buesink, York University

The Trees Know My Name: Breaking the Binary of the Sacred and the Demonic in Blackwood's The Man Whom the Trees Loved
Shannon Goldman, California State University, Fullerton

20. New Conceptions in Pedagogy - Lombard Room
Chair: Nancy Salay

Beyond the Binary: Redirecting Argumentation Pedagogy from a "Win/Lose" to a "Three Uses" Emphasis
Wendy Grosskopf, University of Rhode Island

From Contrasts to Continuums: Two Sides of the Same Coin
Nancy Salay, Queen's University, Canada

21. Perspectives on Dance - Coit Tower Room
Chair: Sara Melzer

An Aesthetic Analysis of Taiwanese Ta'si Ch'a Dance
Yi-Ling Chiang, National Taiwan University of Sport

It Takes Two To Tango: Dancing Beyond the Binary of the Couple
Sara Melzer, University of California, Los Angeles

BREAK [with beverage and refreshment]
Mezzanine 11 to 11:15 AM

Thursday, April 9, 2015

Session VII - 11:15 AM to 12:30 PM

22. Meditations on Identity, Family, and Madness - Ghiradelli Room
Chair: Donald Palmer

Identity and Intertextuality in Zhang Hanzhi's Memoirs
Chunhui Peng, Santa Clara University

Alice Munro's 'Family Furnishings' and the Vanishing Point of Realism
Kristan Lucas, Nipissing University

The Collapsed Binaries of Baroque Dreams: Paranoia and Madness in René Descartes' "Meditations"
Donald Palmer, Professor Emeritus, College of Marin and North Carolina State University

23. Knotting the Thread #2 - Lombard Room
Chair: Lisa Austin

Knotting the Thread #2: Patching Erie's urban grid
Lisa Austin, Edinboro University of Pennsylvania and CivitasErie

Knotting the Thread #2: Voices from Kaw Thoo Lei, An Animated Documentary, A Cross-Cultural Collaboration, Representing The Un-Representable
Martha Gorzycki, San Francisco State University

Knotting the Thread #2: Learning to stitch what has been torn
Michele Austin Dennehy, Conservator in Private Practice, Severna Park, MD

24. Spectrums of Art and Museums - Coit Tower Room
Chair: Solmaz Mohammadzadeh Kive

Edouard Duval Carrié and the Triangular Countertrade in Art
Peter Sutherland, Louisiana State University

Lessons from the Museum: Towards a De-Canonized Pedagogy
Solmaz Mohammadzadeh Kive, University of Colorado

LUNCH (on your own) - 12:30 to 1:15 PM

Thursday, April 9, 2015

Session VIII - 1:15 t0 2:30 PM

25. Beyond Gender, Shape, and Linguistic Identity: Narratives, Transgressions, and Cultural Relativities - Ghiradelli Room
Chair: Christoph Zepeda

Beyond Masculine and Feminine: Helping Students explore Culturally Relative Gender Norms
Laura Fasick, Minnesota State University, Moorehead

Beyond Binaries in the Study of the Emergence of Creolized Languages and Societies in the Afro-Atlantic
Nicholas Faraclas, Lourdes Gonzales, and Pier Angeli LeCompte Zambrana,University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras

Post-Bariatric Surgery Narratives: The Trans-Fat Experience
Christoph Zepeda, California School of Professional Psychology

26. Architectures and Cities - Lombard Room
Chair: Arian Korkuti

Remembering the Body: Halprin Life/Art Processes in a Landscape Architecture Studio
Jennie Wakefield, Tamalpa Institute

Question of the Dialectic Argument in the Architecture of Piazza Scanderbeg and Viale dell'Impero in Tirana, Albania
Arian Korkuti, Virginia Tech

27. Poetic Multiplicities - Coit Tower Room
Chair: Gerburg Garmann

A Landscape of Binary Opposition: Parallactic Perspectives on Love
Katie Lea, East Tennessee State University

Female Poets, Retreat Poetry, an' Defining New Spaces for Women's Fancy to Flourish in the Eighteenth Century
Shanna Cooper, San Francisco State University

Word - Image - Sound: A Multimedia Experience of Friederike Mayröcker's and Ulla Hahn's Poetry
Gerburg Garmann, University of Indianapolis

Thursday, April 9, 2015

Session IX - 2:30 to 3:45 PM

28. Explorations in Art - Ghiradelli Room
Chair: William Folkestad

The Toy Paradox: Cassatt, Morisot, and the Queerness of Heteronormative Childhood
Jessica Cresseveur, University of Louisville

The Female Nude and the Woman Artist: The Expressive Symbolist Womb
Alice Price, Temple University, Tyler School of Art

What the Artist Saw: Degas's The Tub (1886)
William Folkestad, Colorado State University, Pueblo

29. Decoding the Binary - Lombard Room
Chair: Avron Kulak

Wisdom Is a Butterfly: What Happens to the Binary When We Put It in a Non-dualistic Chrysalis
Nickolas Knightly, University of California, Santa Cruz

That "What The Fuck?!?!" Moment
Rebecca Caissie, Acadia University/Brighton University UK

Between Philosophy and Religion: On the History of Binary Oppositions
Avron Kulak, York University

30. Three Centuries of Popular Forms - Coit Tower Room
Chair: Lee Ann Westman

Pamela Plays Cards: Gambling and Play in the Eighteenth-Century British Novel
Brandy Deminna, San Francisco State University

Penny Dreadful: The 21st-Century Victorian Gothic
Sam Sturdivant, San Francisco State University

Beyond "Domestic" and "Sentimental": Why Popular 19th-century American Fiction Matters
Lee Ann Westman, University of Texas at El Paso

BREAK [with beverage and refreshment] - Mezzanine 3:45-4 PM

Thursday, April 9, 2015

Session X - 4 to 5:15 PM

31. Hermeneutics and Cognition - Ghiradelli Room
Chair: Steve Surryhne

Absolution & Confession: A Sacramental Hermeneutic for Forgiveness
Cathal Doherty, Boston College

Paul Ricoeur: An Ameliorative Hermeneutic
Tyler Heid, San Francisco State University

Cognitive Mapping and Remapping
Steve Surryhne, San Francisco State University

32. Representations of Lived Experience - Fisherman's Wharf Room
Chair: Tom Strawman

Killing Custer: Deliberate Defeat at the Little Bighorn
Monette Bebow-Reinhard, Independent Scholar

Penetrating Patriarchy: Making Sense of Multiple Masculinities through the Lived Experience of Pacific Coast Loggers, 1945-1975
Jacquelinne Kirkham, McMaster University

Beyond the Human/Non-Human Divide: Ecological Imagination in Louise Erdrich's Last Report on the Miracles at Little No Horse
Tom Strawman, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee

33. Musical Mixtures - Lombard Room
Chair: Stefan Love

Duke Ellington and American Popular Music: High/Low, Black/White…?
Laura Nash, Fairfield University

When Words and Music are One
John Berners, University of Indianapolis

Right and Wrong: What is a Mistake in Jazz Improvisation?
Stefan Love, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

34. Gradations of East-West Contemplations - Coit Tower Room
Chair: Richard Turnbull

The East and West: in the context of literary scholarship, can the twain ever meet?
Anu Warrier, University of Oxford

Western/ Non-Western: The Dimming of the Light (at Last?)
Richard Turnbull, Fashion Institute of Technology

Thursday, April 9, 2015

Session XI - 5:15 to 6:30 PM

35. Images, Architectures, and Landscape - Ghiradelli Room
Chair: Chase Clow

Oklahoma's Post Office Murals: A Study of American Indian Images
Shannon McCraw, Austin Weaver, Southeastern Oklahoma State University

Crossing the Human/Nature Divide: Musings on Landscape in the Writings of 20th and 21st Century Photographers
Chase Clow, Dominican University of California

36. Student Writing, Power, and Social Change - Fisherman's Wharf Room
Chair: John R. Turner

Art or Therapy? You Make the Call; An Interactive Presentation on Evaluating Hidden Messages in First Year Student Writing
Roberta D'Alois, University of San Francisco

Classroom Savoir: Mapping Effects of Student Power
Rebecka Black, University of Arizona

Reaching Toward the Other: Negotiating in a Binary World
John R. Turner, Missouri State University

37. John's Cage 50.0: Linear/Non-Linear Experiments Regarding "Either/Or/And/But/Too," Over Time - Lombard Room
Tim Tsang, CalArts

38. Systems of Creativity - Coit Tower Room
Chair: Emily Farris

Reimagining Creativity: A Systemic View of the Creative/Not Creative Dichotomy
Jocelyn Chapman Karen McClendon, Creative Systemic Studies, University of Louisiana at Monroe

"things happened": Creation through Destruction in Louise Erdrich's Tracks:
Emily Farris, San Francisco State University

 

Friday, April 10, 2015

Sessions 8:30 AM to 6:30 PM - Registration and Exhibits Mezzanine
6:30 to 7 PM - Snacks and Beverages
7 to 8:30 PM - Keynote Address Ball Room
8:30 to 10:30 PM - Open Reception and Cash Bar Ghiradelli and Fisherman's Wharf Rooms

8 to 8:30 AM Coffee and Tea Mezzanine

Session XII - 8:30 to 9:45 AM

39. Time Spectrums of Human Desire - Ghiradelli Room
Chair: Eileen Harney

Binaries of Loss and Desire: Catullus, Ariosto, and Cicero in Montaigne's De l'amitié
Alani Hicks-Bartlett, University of California, Berkeley

A Theatre Practitioner's Perspective on the Emergence of the Human "Truth of the Moment" in Italian Renaissance Art
Ken Gargaro, Robert Morris University

Motherhood vs. Heroism in Pop Culture: An Ongoing Divide for Women
Eileen Harney, University of Alaska, Fairbanks

40. Pedagogical Voyages - Fisherman's Wharf Room
Chair: Jean Filetti

The Number of Roads Now Open: Decision-Mapping and the Gamification of American Art History for the College Classroom
Mary Beth Looney, Brenau University

A Classroom without Borders
Brently Johnson, Pacific University

Reading Logs in the English Classroom: Convincing Pre-Service Teachers of Their Worth in the Age of High-Stakes Standardized Testing
Jean Filetti, Christopher Newport University

41. No Damn Cat, and No Damn Cradle: A Dialogue on the Moral Neutrality of Environmental Devastation - Lombard Room
Phoebe Reeves, Gregory Loving, University of Cincinnati, Clermont College

42. Morality vs. Immorality: Its Boundary and Beyond in Contemporary Literature - Coit Tower Room

An Inquiry into Steven Pinker's Theory on Submission and Conformity to Societal Norms: Its Interpretation in Milan Kundera's "The Joke" and Goh Poh Seng's "If We Dream Too Long"
Karen von Kunes, Yale University

The Crossroads between Literature, Ethics, and Technology
Gwendolyn Dolske, Loyola Marymount University

Friday, April 10, 2015

Session XIII - 9:45 to 11 AM

43. Meditations on Music - Ghiradelli Room
Chair: Michael Golden

Beyond Nurture and Culture: The Origin of Western Polyphony as Adaptive Response to Evolutionary Pressures
William Grim, Emeritus Professor

Shattering the Glass Slipper: Kinship and Gender Binary Disruptions in Cinderella
Rebecca Fairbank, Independent Scholar

The Music In and Of Ecology, Michael Golden, Soka University of America and Research Fellow
Min-On Music Research Institute

44. Literary Subversions - Fisherman's Wharf Room
Chair: Jason Slavin

The Voices from The Voiceless
Liping Zhang, Florida A & M University

'The orphan child of a brilliant century': Beyond Genre and Gender Dichotomies in Marilynne Robinson's Lila (2014)
Teresa O'Rourke, Loughborough University, United Kingdom

Subverting the Suburban Mystique in Joyce Carol Oates' Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?
Jason Slavin, San Francisco State University

45. Workshop: The Making of Humanities Across the Arts: Case Studies and a Critical Method - Lombard Room
Stephen Husarik, University of Arkansas, Fort Smith

46. Classical Perspectives and Ramifications - Coit Tower Room
Chair: Cecilia Peek

"There Is Nothing Either Good or Bad, But Thinking Makes It So"
Erich Freiberger, Jacksonville University

Young Lovers, Doves, and Lionesses: A New Space for Femininity in Homeric Similes
Dylan Cheek, Creighton University

Gods and Devils: Homeric Echoes and the Heroic Ideal in Goethe's Faust
Cecilia Peek, Brigham Young University

Friday, April 10, 2015

BREAK [with beverage and refreshment]
Mezzanine 11 to 11:15 AM

Session XIV - 11:15 AM to 12:30 PM

47. Two Centuries of Mystery - Ghiradelli Room
Chair: Sara Hackenberg

Rhizomatic Thought and Inspector Bucket as Nomad in the World of Bleak House
Keith Roche, San Francisco State University

The Stuff That Dreams are Made Of: The Real, the Unreal, and the Maltese Falcon
Ronald Richardson, San Francisco State University

Asmodeus's Kaleidoscope: Looking Beyond Surface and Depth in 19th-Century Mystery Fiction
Sara Hackenberg, San Francisco State University

48. Theatrical Disciplines and Interdisciplines - Fisherman's Wharf Room
Chair: Kim Jacobs-Beck

Cheating History: Performing Period or Period Plays
James Bell, Grand Valley State University

Binarism as an Ideology: Two Case Studies in Theatrical Scholarship
Hesam Sharifian, Tufts University

Stage into Page onto Soundstage: Blurring the Lines between Nineteenth Century Theatre and Novels
Kim Jacobs-Beck, University of Cincinnati-Clermont College

49. Workshop: Keeping the 'Human' in 'Humanities': Social Action through Writing - Lombard Room
Gail Wood Miller, Hunter College

50. Digital Humanities: Gradations - Coit Tower Room
Chair: Ronald Weber

I am 00110101 00110000 (or, Are We the Binary Data that We Generate?)
Sara Northerner, University of Louisville

Surveillance as Performance
Todd Herzog, University of Cincinnati

The Digital Age, Informational Literacy and Teaching the Humanities
Ronald Weber, University of Texas at El Paso

Friday, April 10, 2015

LUNCH (on your own) - 12:30 to 1:15 PM

Session XV - 1:15 to 2:30 PM

51. The Ties that Bind: Across the Disciplines - Ghiradelli Room
Chair: Lawrence Hanley

From White Privilege to 'Like' Privilege: The Master's House in a New Neighborhood
Chris Wilson Simpkins, University of South Africa

Evil Empire or Evil Empires? Soviet Dissident Artists and Cold War Politics
Clinton Buhler, Dixie State University

Thinking with Zombies: Precarity, The Walking Dead, and Late Capitalism
Lawrence Hanley, San Francisco State University

52. Culminations: Historical, Cultural, and Pedagogical Contexts - Fisherman's Wharf Room
Chair: Robert Hauhart

A Minor Encounter with Oskar and Zofia Hansen: Towards an Affective Architecture
Maryam Fotouhi, Columbia University

Staging Daniil Kharms' "The Old Woman": Beyond the Differences
Luda Popenhagen, California State University, Channel Islands

The Ideal Capstone Course
Robert Hauhart, Saint Martin's University

53. Seven Deadly Sins Three Different Ways - Lombard Room
Shawn Tucker, Elon University

Friday, April 10, 2015

Session XVI - 2:30 to 3:45 PM

54. Dark Passages: Graphic Novels and Comics - Ghiradelli Room
Chair: Doré Ripley

"I just want to share my disease": Sanity vs. insanity in Batman's Arkham Asylum by Grant Morrison
Maria del Pilar Lamadrid, University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras

Noir Adaptation and Conversion in Alan Moore's Watchmen
Victoria Trang, San Francisco State University

Blurring the Binary: Watchmen's Noir Anti-hero
Doré Ripley, California State University, East Bay and Diablo Valley College

55. Sacred and Worldly Spectrums and Interactions - Fisherman's Wharf Room
Chair: Erin McCoy

Reassessing the Binary of the Sacred and the Secular in the Holy Week Celebration of the Philippines
M. Arlene Chongson, LeMoyne-Owen College

Civil Disobedience Under God: Vietnam War Protest and the Catholic Church
Erin McCoy, University of South Carolina, Beaufort

56. Masks, Hybridity, and Liminality - Lombard Room
Chair: Timothy Green

Beyond the Binary: Hybridization as an Expression of Muscial Globalization
Paul Krejci, University of Alaska, Fairbanks

Beyond the Tragic Mixedblood and the Super-Mulatta: Revising Multiracial Identity in Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony and Danzy Senna's Caucasia
Sarita Cannon, San Francisco State University

Liminality and Morality: The Moral Imagination and the Humanities
Timothy Green, St. Edward's University

Friday, April 10, 2015

BREAK [with beverage and refreshment] Mezzanine 3:45 to 4 PM

Session XVII - 4 to 5:15 PM

57. Media Cultures: Film and TV - Ghiradelli Room
Chair: Britney Broyles

"I Did It for Me": The Gendered Rhetorical Deconstruction of the Male Provider Role in Breaking Bad
Jessica Wojtysiak, California State University, Bakersfield

Beyond 'Good' and 'Bad' Cops: Ambivalent Figures of Transgression in Serpico (1973), Prince of the City (1981) and Bad Lieutenant (1992)
Nadège Rolland-Samé, University of Poitiers, France

Interrogating the Real: Surrealism, Metaphysics, and Indeterminancy in True Detective
Britney Broyles, University of Louisville

58. Gradations of Difference: Theater - Fisherman's Wharf Room
Chair: Bernardo Machado

"It's Funny Because It's [Crude]": Humour Theory and 'Donjuanismo' on the Spanish Stage of the Seventeenth Century
Teboho Makalima, University of Victoria

Breaking Binaries: The Destruction of the Binaries of Gender and Colonial Identities in David Henry Hwang's M. Butterfly
Sarah George, California State University, Fullerton, Saddleback College

Broadway Abroad: A Study of Modalities of Difference Between New York (US) and São Paulo (Brazil)
Bernardo Machado, University of São Paulo

59. Movement and Stillness - Lombard Room
Chair: Nancy VanKanegan

Let's Kinulate That!: Understanding Science Concepts through Active Participation in Kinesthetic Simulations
Grant Williams, St. Thomas University

In Praise of the Pause
Nancy VanKanegan, Columbia College Chicago

60. Explorations in Postmodern Fiction - Coit Tower Room
Chair: Paul, Kintzele

The Author, the Person, and the Reader: Signs of Nabokov Behind the Symbols
Edward Charlberg, San Francisco State University

"I don't really know what I am": Unconventionality, Unreliability, and Permeability in The Double
Nick L. Salazar, San Francisco State University

The Permutations of Ecstasy in The Magus
Paul, Kintzele, University of Houston-Downtown

Session XVIII - 5:15 to 6:30 PM

61. The Other Italian American - Ghiradelli Room
Chair: Samuele F. S. Pardini

American Stories: Ebe Cagli's Exile Literature
Evelyn Ferraro, Santa Clara University

Johnny Staccato and the Multiple Edges of Italian Ethnicity in 1950s Television
Laura Ruberto, Berkeley City College

Neither Black nor White: The Italian American Gangster
Samuele F. S. Pardini, Elon University

62. Post and Meta Modernities - Fisherman's Wharf Room
Chair: Jessica Burke

The Road to Meta-Modernism: Hope and Anxiety in the 21st Century
Megan Kolendo, University of Alaska, Anchorage

The Frustrated Quest in One Hundred Years of Solitude
Jessica Burke, Hamilton College

63. Lecture Recital: The Sacred and the Profane: A Lecture Recital of New Music for Harp and Saxophone - Lombard Room
Jonathan Hulting-Cohen, University of Massachuetts, Amherst
Jennifer Ellis, University of Michigan

64. Social Constructions, Stereotypes, Vagueness, and Legal Morality - Coit Tower Room
Chair: Kai Draper

Between Pride and Shame: Reframing Stereotypes of Blackness after Civil Rights
Danielle Fuentes Morgan, Cornell University

The Legal is Now Illegal: Social Constructions of Law and Morality
Jen Rushforth, San Jose State University

Vagueness in the Law: Ubiquitous Yet Ignored
Kai Draper, University of Delaware

Friday, April 10, 2015

BREAK [with beverage and snacks] Mezzanine 6:30-7 PM

Session XIX - 7 to 8:30 PM

65. KEYNOTE ADDRESS - Ball Room

Keynote Speaker: Gloria Nusse
Forensic Artist, Human Anatomy Lab, San Francisco State University
"From Jericho to the USA; From Kansas to California: One Artist's Journey Along 9,000 Years of Forensic Facial Reconstruction and Scientific Art"

8:30 to 10:30 PM Open Reception and Cash
Bar Ghiradelli and Fisherman's Wharf Rooms

 

Saturday, April 11, 2015

Sessions 8:30 AM to 12:15 PM
Registration and Exhibits Mezzanine 12:30-2 PM
Closing Luncheon Ball Room

8 to 8:30 AM Mezzanine Coffee and Tea and Refreshment

Session XX - 8:30 to 9:45 AM

66. Mediations: Influence, Aura, and Exile - Ghiradelli Room
Chair: Taylor Clement

Anti-Colonial Anxiety: Internal and External Exile in Moth Smoke and The Namesake
Heejung Sim, San Francisco State University

James Baldwin and Richard Wright: Brick by Brick
Miriam deQuadros White, San Francisco State University

Esther Inglis, Retromediation, and the Illustrated Octonaries
Taylor Clement, Florida State University

67. Memory and Recollection - Fisherman's Wharf Room
Chair: Wai-Leung Kwok

Examining the Genealogy of Binaries and Exploring Hybridity, or "To be or not to be in a world of binaries"
J
oshua Horowitz, Dominican University

Recollections in Tranquility: Wordsworth and the Trauma of Experience
Wai-Leung Kwok, San Francisco State University

68. Identity Negotiations and Constructions - Lombard Room
Chair: Kevin Stein

Pembroke Moviegoing: A Study in Triracial Social-Identity Negotiation
Christopher McKenna, North Carolina State University

Contemporary Negro-African Poets, Demagogues or Revolutionaries?
Peter Akinwande, University of Lagos, Nigeria

Building a Theoretical Framework for Defeasibility: Student Excuses as a Unique Form of Apologia Rhetoric
Kevin Stein, Michael K. Ostrowsky, Southern Utah State University

69. CANCELLED

Saturday, April 11, 2015

Session XXI - 9:45 to 11 AM

70. Beyond Binaries: Mutability, Classical Myth, Tragedy, Aesthetic Perception - Ghiradelli Room
Chair: Edmund Cueva

Life, Death, and Circling Will
Rachael Hammond, Shenandoah University

Inescapable? Binaries in Aesthetic Perception
Tony Lack, Jefferson College, Roanoke, VA

Binary Thinking, Myth, and Tragedy
Edmund Cueva, University of Houston-Downtown

71. American Representations: East and West - Fisherman's Wharf Room
Chair: Gerald Barr

From Gatewood to Davis: How Technology Has Changed the Way We Write About the Appalachian Trail
Jessica Cory, East Carolina University

Negotiating Empire and Power in California: The Americanization of Santa Barbara, 1840 to 1880
Julio Pizano, California Polytechnic University

Leslie Marmon Silko's Yellow Woman: Simultaneous Narrative
Gerald Barr, San Francisco State University

72. Constructing Artistic Myths of the Artist and Characters - Lombard Room
Chair: David A. Hatch

Shakespeare Humors His Characters
Alessia Mingrone, San Francisco State University

Gertrude Stein, Portraits, and Pedagogy
Loretta Stec, San Francisco State University

Dismantling Mythmaking: Mark Tansey and Jeffrey Eugenides
David A. Hatch, University of South Carolina

73. States of Humanity: Who Are We? - Coit Tower Room
Chair: Herman Haluza

Our Likes and Dislikes Make Life a Battleground
Barry Peterson, University of Nevada, Reno

Making Sense of "Her": Performance, Authenticity, and the Evolution of Consciousness
Wendy Chase, Florida South Western State College

Ancient Paths/Modern Journeys
Herman Haluza, San Francisco State University

Saturday, April 11, 2015

Session XXII - 11 AM to 12:15 PM

74. Cultural Heritage, Cultural Fusion, Cultural Amenities - Ghiradelli Room
Chair: Lauren Davis

Palestinian-Israeli Cookbooks as Cultural Fusion: Deconstructing Binary Narratives in Palestine/Israel
Jennifer Shutek, University of Oxford

Reuniting Heritage: Scent and Sensory Explorations of Istanbul's Past and Present
Lauren Davis, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey

75. Performing Objects, Objects of Performance - Lombard Room
Chair: Henry Sayre

"'Ancient Footprints Are Everywhere': Bob Dylan's 'Self-Portrait(s) in a Convex Mirror'"
Geoffrey Green, San Francisco State University

"The World Won't Listen": Cultural Identity and the Globalization of Music Video
Henry Sayre, Oregon State University-Cascades

76. Femmes and Hommes Fatale - Coit Tower Room
Chair: Bethany Qualls

Gender, Power, and Necrophilic Fantasy in Film Noir
Lauren Mendoza, San Francisco State University

The Male Performance: Exploration of Masculinity in the Novel and Film Adaptations of Laura
Caitlin Fitzpatrick, San Francisco State University

Sleeping Her Way to the Top: The Menace of the Female Sexual Predator in Early American Cinema and Text
Bethany Qualls, University of California, Davis

Saturday, April 11, 2015

Closing Luncheon Ball Room 12:30 to 2 PM

 

PAPER ABSTRACTS

Erin McCoy, University of South Carolina Beaufort
Civil Disobedience Under God: Vietnam War Protest and the Catholic Church
The United States maintains a difficult and fascinating relationship with religious law and civil law. United States courts decree the law of the land above, for example, Sharia law or polygamist beliefs, yet they base law-making decisions that benefit Christian beliefs, such as the controversial Hobby Lobby/birth control hullabaloo. The concepts of binaries "right and wrong," according various religious organizations in the U.S., rarely agrees with the "right and wrong" verdicts of state and federal law. This binary relationship blurs, however, when people, citing religious beliefs, practice non-violent civil disobedience; these people willfully break laws they are aware of, believing that a "higher law" compels them to do so for a greater purpose. Are they "right" to do so? Are they "wrong" as soon as they purposefully and actively "break" the law, or is society "wrong" for imposing laws that compromise people's sacred moral convictions? During the Vietnam War, anti-war protests ranged from pop stars to prize fighters, from the working class to the elite Ivy League student; the fact that priests and religious leaders spoke out against the war only underscores the vast reach of the anti-war movement. Brutal, non-violent protests from the clergy occurred in startling ways that bring the binary relationship of "right" and "wrong" to a critical point of perspective. Self-immolating Buddhist.

William Grim, retired Professor
Beyond Nurture and Culture: The Origin of Western Polyphony as Adaptive Response to Evolutionary Pressures
Biological metaphors have long been used to describe music. Musical themes have been likened to seeds, and, since the time of Goethe, "organicism" and "organic form" have been staples of critical discussions of music. Prominent late 19th-century music theorists such as C. H. Kitson, C. Hubert H. Parry, and Margaret H. Glyn largely described the development of musical forms within a Darwinian framework. Lacking from their historical narratives, however, is a sense of human causality, as though musical compositions were deterministically implicit in their themes, with the composers having little say in the matter. This paper reverses that approach and describes in Darwinian evolutionary terms why Western civilization was the only civilization to develop polyphony. Building on the large body of recent research in the field of molecular evolution that posits a continuing and even accelerating pace of human evolution, the development of polyphony will be shown to be an adaptive response to specific evolutionary pressures that were unique to the inhabitants of the Western world.

Laura Fasick, Minnesota State University Moorhead
Beyond Masculine and Feminine: Helping Students Explore Culturally Relative Gender Norms
Teaching at a small Midwestern school with a largely rural, mostly conservative student body, I daily witness student reluctance to examine gender norms. This remains the case even though the school vigorously promotes critical thinking skills. I have discovered that using examples from music and dance, both of our own day and from previous historical periods, can help students to explore the idea of "masculinity" and "femininity" as social constructs and to recognize ways in which the markers of what seems to them a fixed "masculine/feminine" binary can shift dramatically from one period to another. In this pedagogy-based paper I will explain the rationale behind my use of these music and dance texts and give examples of such texts along with the questions I have raised with students about them. I will share some representative student responses to show the insights and critical analysis that students have demonstrated within this context.

Anu Warrier, University of Oxford
The East and West: in the context of literary scholarship, can the twain ever meet?
A dichotomous view of the East and West, where ‘never the twain shall meet’ (Kipling 231) may purport a notion that literary theories originating in the West cannot be successfully applied to Japanese literature due to the supposedly ‘unique’ nature of Japan. When confronted with the task of analysing trauma in Japan, this putative opposition is further made problematic, for a Western scholarship of atomic bomb literature and war trauma might arguably be a victor’s analysis that continues to perpetuate ‘a form of cultural imperialism’ (Craps 48) by imposing it on a previously defeated country. However, under the complex context of the notion of ‘otherness’ in Japan, the effectiveness, ethics and limitations of approaching Japanese literature through Western trauma discourse is crucial to both understanding whether trauma is culturally specific and furthermore, if so, whether applying Western theories would continue the hegemony of Eurocentricism. In this paper, I contest the ‘otherness’ of Japan, arguing that the cross-cultural application of trauma theory to study Japan simply invites a greater volume of debate and discussion about agency, responsibility and culpability. While preventing trauma from being reduced to a oppositional and individual phenomena, it also questions the greater narrative of victims and oppressors.

Carrie Murray, Pitt Community College
Publishing Blogs: Eliminating the Taboo
While books are becoming Kindle-ized, publishers are taking Internet content and turning it into hardcover books. Publishers are recognizing the following that Internet bloggers are gaining and are in turn, capitalizing on those followers. Yet, the capitalization is not necessarily a negative. Hannah Hart, who is openly a lesbian, is just one of the new authors who have arisen due to their Internet popularity. Blogs and YouTube channels have caused a new genre to form in the publishing sphere: the Internet memoir. With personal blogs easy to set up, more people are writing about personal projects or personal-happy and painful-experiences. Many times these blogs do not have a chronological flow. Yet each entry gets the reader closer the blog's author and gives insight into blogger's personal life. The blogs fearlessly address issues such a social anxiety, sexual assault, gender identity, religious lifestyles, and depression. When the books based off blogs are published, the memoirs retain the conversational tone and sporadic nature, which in turns makes social anxiety, sexual assault, etc a topic that is easier to approach and put into regular conversation.

Lack, Tony, Jefferson College, Roanoke, VA
Inescapable? Binaries in Aesthetic Perception
An interpretation and evaluation of binary oppositions and classificatory schemas across four paradigms in contemporary aesthetics: The cultural geography of Yi-Fu Tuan, the cognitive neuroscience approach taken by theorists such as Thomas Jacobsen, the Darwinian evolutionary approach taken by Denis Dutton, and the cultural competition model employed by Pierre Bourdieu. In each case the guiding questions are whether, how, and why binary categories and classifications affect human aesthetic perceptions. Visual examples are drawn from archaeological sites, existing physical landscapes, Chinese landscape painting, Impressionism, Abstract Expressionism, and conceptual art. After the comparison of paradigms with the aid of visual examples, the question concerning the necessary and inescapable structure of binaries in aesthetic perception will be addressed to the audience.

Jessica Tooker, Indiana University
Seeing Othello's Visage in Our Minds: Empathetic Witnessing in Shakespeare's Othello
When Desdemona defends Othello to the skeptical members of the Venetian senate (and her outraged father) by claiming that she, "saw Othello's visage in his mind," simply put, she empathizes with him. But on the level of dramatic performance, what does Desdemona's claim reflect back to the offstage audience regarding the profoundly human (and humane) ability to accurately recognize and adequately respond to humanity in another, in herself, or in ourselves? A vexing conundrum indeed, particularly as it applies to those who exemplify-and make unnervingly manifest-the binaries of good and evil, fairness and blackness intrinsic to, and reverberant within, the psychic core of each of us. You know them, and so do I: those individuals with whom we only uneasily identify or (arguably worse) with whom we resonate utterly despite damning social judgment (or, Desdemona's case, tragic consequences). What are the analytical ramifications for perceptive audience members who become-by virtue of their position as omniscient spectators capable of being moved by what they witness onstage-"empathetic witnesses" stimulated (like Desdemona) to feel for Othello, but also at times, to feel against him? This paper examines how Desdemona functions as the audience's affective "pivot point" illuminating the interpretive rewards and hazards of empathetic spectatorship (the cognitive and affective process of interpretation allowing us to accurately judge what we see onstage) as it applies to identification with an "Other" with whom we share more in common than we might suspect and who, consequently, illuminates the recognition of our own humanity (if not always our humaneness) in Desdemona, in Othello, and distressingly, in Iago as well.

Ezekiel Craigo, UC Riverside
No Sex, Gender, Desire, and Language in Jeanette Winterson's Written on the Body
Written on the Body describes an odyssey of desire while testing the semiotics of love. Steeped in metaphor and polysemic discourse, it twists clichés and stereotypes, using them as tropes mapping a course of longing and loss. Dripping with irony and cynicism, Winterson describes "the slop bucket of romance." My paper argues that this novel, through its use of an unsexed/ungendered first-person narrator, explicates gender as a text "written on the body." This technique questions categorical assumptions regarding gender, desire, and sexuality, demonstrating the subjective nature of such discourse. These binary distinctions exist as symbolic systems, maps that attempt to compass an ever-shifting territory. The novel lures a reader into questioning his/her own assumptions, impelling the reader to imagine his/herself as the story's narrator, demonstrating all the while that language fails to adequately define notions of love and longing. Ultimately, the novel represents Winterson's own struggle with language and literature. The novel attempts to express sexuality as textuality, revealing the erotic nature of language itself. We desire what we lack, in this case meaning, and language promises this while never consummating or satisfying our desire. Language becomes the ultimate lover.

Britney Broyles, University of Louisville
Interrogating the Real: Surrealism, Metaphysics, & Indeterminacy in True Detective
This presentation will focus on HBO's recent new series True Detective. I will connect it back to Robert Chambers's The King in Yellow, the metaphysical detective story, and Surrealism. While the classic detective story typically ends with a satisfying resolution of all questions posited at its beginning, the metaphysical detective story tends to represent reality in a state of perpetual confusion, chaos, and indeterminacy. The story's resolution is far from satisfying and the detectives usually fail to solve the crime in any normal sense. It usually ends with more questions than answers and in between is filled with long episodes of hallucinatory, surrealistic, and existential digressions. This presentation will build off the idea that representation and perception are processes less straightforward than originally understood, as the history of film studies has demonstrated. I will argue that the hyperreality of digital imaging in True Detective is coupled with surrealistic contents to produce visual indeterminacy that is in line with the metaphysical detective story and a step away from mainstream cinematic tendencies, which may lead the reader to contemplate the nature of reality and perception itself.

Justin Alle-Corliss, San Francisco State University
Making "an angel off angel dust": Re-inscribing the Power of 'Hood' Identity in Kendrick Lamar's Good Kid, M.A.A.D City
In the past two decades Rap has undergone tremendous change, not simply its performance, literary techniques, subject matter, or musical accompaniment, but also in its incorporation into mainstream culture. In recent years, Rap has become multi-million dollar industry with only a small percentage of practicing musicians reaching the top tier and becoming pop-culture icons. Despite Rap's inclusion into mainstream culture, the dehumanization and labeling of these artists as societal degenerates who advocate drugs and violence continues. In my paper, I closely examine the Compton, California born artist Kendrick Lamar's Good Kid, M.A.A.D City (2012) in order to assess the current ability of the Rap genre to act as a humanizing mode of political resistance. While much of the scholarship on Rap focuses on well-known artists of past decades, I look at a contemporary artist, whose fresh rhymes challenge binaries, stereotypes, and notions of authenticity, in effect molding the current generation. In my study, I will engage with scholarship about race, gender, and the poetic tradition in Rap by Imani Perry, Murray Forman, and Adam Bradley to further explore how Kendrick Lamar's Good Kid, M.A.A.D City is able to transcend boundaries, reinscribing 'hood' identity and the power of the Rap community.

Krista Lucas, Nipissing University
Alice Munro's "Family Furnishings" and the vanishing point of realism
In 2013, the Canadian short story writer Alice Munro, best known for her depictions of the lives of girls and women in small town southern Ontario, won the Nobel Prize in Literature. Her stories are often associated with regional and realist fiction because of their deep sense of geographic and temporal place. But Munro's fiction is more formally experimental than is usually acknowledged, and a story such as "Family Furnishings" embraces the realist detail for which she is known, while simultaneously calling into question the ability of such detail to accurately represent the past. "Family Furnishings," in other words, is a story that refuses the binary of realism and postmodernism, and instead merges them into hybrid form. This paper attends to Munro's quiet incorporation of the postmodern into an ostensibly realist story, and I argue that the purpose is to raise epistemological questions about the nature of memory and selfhood. I also suggest that if the story can be taken as an act of theory (thus troubling the fiction-criticism binary), we can read "Family Furnishings" as undermining the assumptions of realism itself.

Jordan Reed, Drew University
Looking Below the Surface: Shifting Perspectives of Memory in American History
Textbooks This presentation will explore a new methodology for studying the content of American History textbooks. In the past, scholars have focused on the facts and events included in these books, and criticized authors and publishers for leaving out items they deemed "good" or "bad." This presentation will argue that using collective memory as a barometer, we are able to better understand the content in these books and the authors and publishers behind them. Using this new methodology to explore the abstract ideas in textbooks, the presentation will explore the changing relevance Frederick Jackson Turner's "Frontier Thesis" has in American History textbooks used throughout the 20th Century. To explain the utility this methodology has to interpret the change in content about major events, this presentation will also interpret changing memory of the Vietnam War throughout these books. While this methodology is new and still in development, it is important to begin the discussion now as Common Core standards begin to shape content in the classroom and teaching tools such as textbooks. The feedback from this presentation will also be valuable in shaping further research.

Adan Falcon, San Francisco State University
The Fictional History in Juan Rulfo's Pedro Paramo
In Hayden White's essay, “The Historical Text as Literary Artifact”, he states: "The ‘overall coherence' of any given 'series' of historical facts is the coherence of story, but this coherence is achieved only by a tailoring of the 'facts' to the requirements of the story form." For this paper, I will compare this aspect of coherence in the "tailoring", or construction of the historical existential narrative surrounding Pedro Paramo by Juan Rulfo and the novella’s theme of exclusion of opposing narratives through the totalitarian control of the antagonist, Pedro Paramo. With this presentation I hope to illustrate the relationship between history and fiction explored by White and its connection in constructing a new narrative for inclusion, while critiquing the novella’s association with the genre of magical realism in examining a surgent of postcolonial criticism surrounding the genre and its effectiveness.

Jonathan Palumbo, Arcadia University
The Decline of Enlightenment Ideology: A 20th Century Historical Analysis into the Contradictions of Western Civilization
This project is a culminating historical analysis into the problems of early 20th Century world history. Throughout my Humanities studies at Arcadia University, I have come across numerous topics and primary sources from the 1900s that convey a common theme across the board: a decline in the belief of human rationale and a growing sense of disillusion with the progress of Western society. In my search for an explanation as to why the 20th Century became the most violent era in human history, evidence has pointed towards a decline in Enlightenment thought as the catalyst. The ideals of the European Enlightenment (which began around the 1650s), created the ideology and plans for a better world through a belief in progress and improvement of human society. Many prominent philosophers of the Enlightenment period expressed in their social and political thought specific ideals which helped lead to the creation of numerous democratic and progressive societies, including our own. However, as the Enlightenment period sought to leave behind a legacy of increasing progress and humanity throughout the world, with Western Civilization as the leader, the beginning of the 20th Century saw those ideals fail as the West became a symbol of violence and irrationality. The purpose of this project is to analyze specific historical events that help explain exactly why and how the decline of Enlightenment thought occurred in our society. My project will begin by looking at two key Enlightenment works as a basis for understanding the ideals of the period. John Locke's Two Treatises of Civil Government (1690) and Thomas Paine's The Rights of Man (1791) express ideas that were iconic to the Enlightenment period. By looking at the arguments expressed in both of these works, we can compare their goals and expectations for a better world to the actual reality of 20th Century experiences.
           This project looks at three key events of the 1900s that specifically contradicted the ideals of Locke and Paine's Enlightenment ideology: the growth of Western imperialism, the outbreak of World War I, and the rise of Communism and totalitarian regimes. These three historical events created a disillusion with Enlightenment ideology on a social, cultural, and political scale, which greatly shaped the outlook of our future and still affects us today. By understanding the problems and contradictions of our past, we are able to get better insight into how Western Civilization has failed in its expectation to live up to Enlightenment thought. The memory of these significant 20th Century world events are still held in the public consciousness today, and by "airing out" our human mistakes, we are not only able to see where society went wrong, but also how we can learn from those mistakes. This historical analysis is a step in towards closing the gap between the expectations of the Enlightenment to the reality of Western society.

David Jenemann, University of Vermont
Decidedly Undecided: A Brief History of Ambivalence
"Ambivalence" short-circuits binaries and hence the humanities, which traffic in nuance, complexity, and ambiguity, are the ideal forum from which to consider the term's complicated history. It will perhaps come as a surprise to some that the term "ambivalence," is a relatively recent invention. Although notions of "indifference," "ambiguity" and "being of two (or more) minds," have an extensive history, the term was only coined in 1910, and it is only within the context of the rise of modernity that one can be truly ambivalent. To the extent that ambivalence has been treated as a scholarly subject-most often by social scientists-it has generally been understood as an obstacle to rational thought. Since the term was coined, it has almost always been used to describe either a symptom of mental disease or a deficient mode of rationality. However, there is a "secret" history of ambivalence, one in which it is deemed a universal condition of western modernity, and, perhaps, the last vestige of freedom for the Enlightenment individual. Sigmund Freud, who early on recognized the term's usefulness (and claimed it for himself), recognized it as a general condition of modern existence. Later in the twentieth century, the Frankfurt School saw in ambivalence the possibility of autonomy both from oppressive political systems as well as from the homogenizing forces of American popular culture. Today, in the work of Nobel Prize-winner Daniel Kahneman, ambivalence is constitutive of the two systems of thought that are overturning economists' long-held belief in "rational man." In this presentation, part of a book on the history of ambivalence, I trace the history of the idea, from the Skeptic School of Greek philosophy to contemporary debates in philosophy and the social sciences and I argue for the primacy of the humanities in understanding the idea's importance.

Gerald Barr, SanFrancisco State University
Leslie Marmon Silko's Yellow Woman: Simultaneous Narrative
Leslie Marmon Silko's 'Yellow Woman' is an ambiguous and simultaneous narrative. Yellow Woman, the protagonist, declares that she cannot be the Yellow Woman of the old ways, yet exhibits such mythic traits which conform to the archetypal Yellow Woman from Laguna oral tradition. The story has mythic tendencies, and employs traditional Laguna literary devices. However, the story simultaneously resists these tendencies. In the story, Yellow Woman is also a modern woman, so she questions her mythic role. 'Yellow Woman' is an original contemporary fictive narrative, yet simultaneously employs traditional mythic tropes.
           The blurring of the mythic, fictive, factual and theological lines in the story conforms to traditional storytelling aesthetics of Silko's Laguna heritage. In Native American cultures, specifically Silko's Laguna in this case, story-telling has the powerful function of keeping the cultural structures intact. The characters of their myths are real, and come alive through the story-telling act to teach eternal lessons. Silko's 'Yellow Woman' exhibits this power, yet struggles with questions of identity due to the challenges of a contemporary life. Thus, the binaries of fiction/non-fiction, mythology/reality, and traditional/contemporary are tested.

Christopher McKenna, North Carolina State University
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To date, relatively little scholarly work has documented the experience of Native Americans who attended early cinema exhibitions in the United States. Yet since the inherently social act of moviegoing usually forced minorities to confront discriminatory prohibitions while attending movie theaters during Jim Crow, Indians frequently were either shut out of white theaters or (more commonly) were relegated along with African American patrons to the very worst seats in any given house. While historical moviegoing studies can reaffirm the multiple forms of segregation that impacted non-whites on a daily basis through an ever-expanding set of commercial and leisure prohibitions, triracial moviegoing communities represent theoretical locales within which the simplicity of otherwise Manichean accounts of race may be challenged and complicated. Thus, this paper reviews the establishment of theaters catering to the social preferences of Native Americans from roughly 1940 onwards in the largest Indian community east of the Mississippi. Pembroke's Indian theaters confound our typically bi-racial assumptions about ethnicity and the ways in which locally dominant demographic groups may seek to co-opt race as an organizational category while developing preferential public spaces of their own.

Liping Zhang Florida A & M University
The Voices from The Voiceless
In Kingston's Woman Warrior, the mother, Brave Orchid is a self-made queen-warrior of her family. Her voice, strong, loud, and powerful, protects the fatherly authority in the family, enforces traditional and cultural discourse, and orders her daughter as well as other family women to obey the legitimacy of the Confucian patriarchal order. The stories that she chooses to tell, from the past and present, from fiction to reality, attempt to manipulate the making of her daughter's mind and attitude in order to meet the standards of the male power.
           However, her role of defending the father's authority is weakened and shattered by the voices from the dead or the outcast, whose stories, once annihilated and stifled, explode to expose the victimization of women in the patriarchal Chinese society, and describe from women's perspectives their own lives. The unknown criminal aunt, who drowned herself with her baby in the family well, has left behind her a story as a heroic pursuit or an individualistic choice. The Aunt Moon Orchid, a victim of the forced and unloved marriage, has finally freed herself from her husband and the meaningless marriage by her madness. Her insanity, an outcry from a woman who was pressed at the bottom of the family, slaps the face of the family order and wins her independency from the indifferent husband. True women warriors, they rise from the dust, rebel from the social suppression, challenge the patriarchal order, transgress the confinement of male power, and break down Mother Brave's voice and the dominant social discourse.
           Most importantly, it is the daughter, Kingston, who brings those who have been denounced or neglected in the shadow to the spotlights and gives the voiceless new voices. The new voices are fresh and powerful, determined to retell, and reinterpret the true stories, syntonize with their personal feelings, combat with the mother's subdual, and reject women's images as geese or maggots in the patriarchal China. At the same time, Kingston's search for her true self is "the refusal to be victimized or stereotyped even by one's own shadow or sense of otherness." Confronting and vilifying the mirror image of her own self--the silent Chinese girl, Kingston stands up and smashes her own inability to speak and the general depiction of the Chinese female voiceless.
           The present and the past, the controlling voice and the silenced, the powerful and the powerless, the social norm and the neglected are clashing in the the book Woman Warrior. By new interpretations from the new generation, the old voiceless have come to have new voices, individual, personal, unique, and powerful. By the end, identified with Ts'ai Yen, Kingston finds her own voice-a voice of music and her own individuality: she lives among "ghosts" in America as a Chinese-American woman. She has decisively departed from her mother's control and reached out for her own individualistic free will.

Daniel Fuentes Morgan, Cornell University
"Between Pride and Shame: Reframing Stereotypes of Blackness after Civil Rights"
African American post-soul literature-literature written after the Civil Rights Movement-may be best defined by its acknowledgement of the troubling nature of stereotypes surrounding blackness and simultaneous refusal to view these stereotypes as marks of shame. Instead, the post-soul reimagines these tropes in an effort to reclaim them. As a result, even topics seemingly as morally certain as slavery become spaces for play where the binaries of good/evil, black/white, and shame/pride are dismantled. I analyze three plays, Robert Alexander's I Ain't Yo Uncle (1994), George C. Wolfe's The Colored Museum (1988), and Lynn Nottage's By the Way, Meet Vera Stark (2013), as they reclaim the troubling stereotypes of blackness to endow their portrayals and the performers with autonomy. They examine a critical question of this reinvention as articulated by Glenda Carpio, "Can stereotypes be used to critique racism without solely fueling the racist imagination?" These works answer affirmatively as they target a limited understanding of blackness and reappropriate and reframe, rather than annihilate, the images. Importantly, these plays refute an oversimplified reclamation-they do not simply reframe these characters as heroic or without fault but instead refuse the binary through complicated, ambiguous portrayals.

Julio Pizano, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona CA
Negotiating Empire and Power in California: The Americanization of Santa Barbara, 1840 to 1880
In 1848 Santa Barbara officially became part of the United States along with the rest of California because of treaty negotiations ending the Mexican-American War. Although the Mexican Cession made Santa Barbara a part of the nation, it would take more than an act of geopolitics to transform California into an American space. This project contends that rethinking "Americanization" as an imperial act converting the foreign into the domestic, rather than territorial acquisition, is useful for understanding Santa Barbara during the second half of the nineteenth century. Thus, this project examines the experiences of key residents of Santa Barbara from 1840 to 1880, focusing on three arenas: economics, politics, and kinship networks. This research highlights the importance of understanding the process of Americanization as involving competing visions of what kind of American town Santa Barbara should be. As Americans arrived, they challenged existing ideas of markets, law, bureaucracy, and obligation, but they also adapted to existing institutions and power structures. Yankees and Mexicans alike contributed to producing an American Santa Barbara. Thus, Santa Barbara's transformation from Mexican outpost to American town was never simply a redrawing of the map, but a more gradual, contingent reorientation toward the American nation.

Avron Kulak, York University
Between Philosophy and Religion: On the History of Binary Oppositions
When Plato founds his philosophical enterprise on the principle of non-contradiction he finds that, precisely in being true to that principle by opposing, in binary fashion, the unqualified knowledge of the forms and the qualified knowledge of appearances, he cannot escape the contradictions thereby engendered. Without knowledge of the forms, he holds, all other knowledge is worthless. Yet, since such knowledge is, he insists, never available to human consciousness, all discussion of the forms is inevitably presented from the side of the appearances - and thus has no validity. His binaries, in other words, render his own discourse utterly self-eviscerating. When Descartes launches, and Spinoza, Kant, Hegel, and Kierkegaard then develop, our modern western philosophical enterprise, they explicitly both eschew the principles of ancient Greek philosophy (thereby also eschewing - at least implicitly - the binary oppositions that follow from them, including those between divine being and human being, soul and body, master and slave…) and align their thinking with biblical principles. My paper will be dedicated to showing that, because modern western philosophy is rooted in biblical thought and thus exceeds, at its very origin, the opposition between the religious and the secular, faith and reason, both its history and the resources that it has to offer for appropriating the binaries by which it is all too often beset must be reconsidered.

Gerburg Garmann, University of Indianapolis
Word - Image - Sound: A Multimedia Experience of Friederike Mayröcker's and Ulla Hahn's Poetry
Being associated with two important developments in European literary history, the Austrian writer Friederike Mayröcker (Vienna Group) and the German writer Ulla Hahn ( 68ers) count among the most important contemporary woman writers in Europe today. In my multimedia presentation, I aim to create multi-sensual audience experiences geared to unfolding Hahn's and Mayröcker's poetic liminal spaces via a simultaneous rendition of sound, word and image. (i.e., my own painting on their poetry, my musical setting of their poetry, and my performance of their poetry). Translations of the poems (from German to English) will be provided.
           Thus, these multi-sensual audience experiences will allow for a weaving in and out of poetic liminal spaces while creating momentary intersections with the audience's own liminal space(s).

Krista Rodin Northern Arizona University
The Blending of the Goddess Gemu and Buddhism in Musuo Culture
The matriarchal Musuo culture concentrated around Lugu Lake in Yunnan and Sichan Provinces has worshipped the Goddess Gemu as long as the local people can remember. The main mountain behind the lake is considered to be the Goddess and a cave complex within the mountain has stalagmites that are said to be her images. A spit of land that extends into the lake is considered her lover, the Dragon. Their love story permeates local tradition and supports the matriarchal society. Buddhism, especially a distinct and unusual Tibetan sect, came to the region at the latest in the mid 19th C. and became synthesized with the indigenous sacred tradition. The region, which remained isolated until the eve of the 21st century, has recently become connected with the rest of China via new roads and is rapidly becoming a major domestic tourist destination. The local synthesized sacred tradition is adapting yet again to become as much of an attraction as the incredible landscape of the region. This presentation explores and demonstrates how the matriarchal Goddess Gemu tradition adapted to patriarchal Buddhism as well as how both have adapted to the influx of Han Chinese tourists.

Wendy Chase, Florida South Western State College
Making Sense of "Her": Performance, Authenticity and the Evolution of Consciousness

Spike Jonze's movie, "Her", offers a complex exploration of love and intimacy in a posthuman world. Notions of performance, authenticity, gender and embodiment are explored when Theodore falls in love with Samantha, an artificially intelligent operating system with intuition and the capacity to evolve. Unlike utopian or apocalyptic sci-fi films that scrutinize the boundaries between the human and nonhuman, this movie doesn't equate the posthuman with the antihuman; it doesn't establish a hierarchy that privileges mind over body as the locus of our humanity; nor does it promote virtual technology as a vehicle for transcending the human condition. Instead of constructing a dialectic that posits technology as female and Theodore as the embodiment of the masculinist desire to exploit it, "Her" elucidates the challenge of maintaining intimacy when all forms of consciousness, embodied or disembodied, are in a constant state of flux. The movie dismantles the notion of the human subject as a discrete, sovereign self that has dominion over its environment. By imagining consciousness as endlessly evolving, performative and inextricably embedded in its environment, Her undermines dualistic thinking and encourages us to re-imagine how we can best share our lives with other life forms, organic and artificial.

Jean S. Filetti, Christopher Newport University
"Reading Logs in the English Classroom: Convincing Pre-Service Teachers of Their Worth in the Age of High-Stakes Standardized Testing"
In exploring the binary of student performance on standardized tests and best practices in the English classroom, this presentation will focus on the importance of reading logs in the literature classroom and the response to their usefulness by pre-service teachers pursuing a Master of Arts in Teaching. Students in this graduate course on teaching literature read multiple essays on Louise Rosenblatt's transactional theory of reading and articles on the practice of assigning and using reading logs in the English classroom. The students were then given the reading logs of high school students and asked to label the log entries as either efferent or aesthetic engagements with literature and to discuss if the place of reading logs in their classrooms. Data collected from their seminar papers indicates that, although future teachers of English can see the value of reading logs in the classroom, they are concerned that valuing student autonomy in interpreting texts, building students' aesthetic connection with texts, and validating the confusion and questioning that emerge in student reading logs may undermine the performance of their students on national, state, and district standardized tests that privilege efferent reading and "right" answers.

Stephan Husarik, University of Arkansas-Fort Smith
The Making of "Humanities Across the Arts": Case Studies and Critical Method
WORKSHOP Dr. Stephen Husarik spent the last two years compiling materials for his new humanities textbook "Humanites Across the Arts." This workshop will explore his application of the four-step Critical Method for evaluating artworks and his procedures for developing case studies in the book. Several case studies are covered in the presentation, including an analysis of Van Gogh's The Starry Night (1889) and an analysis of Golden Section proportions in Ancient Greek classical statues. Participants should be able to leave the session with the ability to judge flat pattern design systematically and to judge classical proportions found in their own bodies. Using the book as a reference, and time permitting, participants will also trace the patterns of movements requested by Louis XIV on a map around the gardens of Versailles in order to reveal the hidden military implications of his estate. For those wishing to have advance knowledge of the textbook and its organization, copies are available at Kendall Hunt Publishers at: 800-247-3458. ISBN: 978-1-4652-5877

Jessica Cresseveur, University of Louisville
The Toy Paradox: Cassatt, Morisot, and the Queerness of Heteronormative Childhood
As the modern toy industry was beginning to shape bourgeois childhood in the late nineteenth century, Mary Cassatt and Berthe Morisot captured the effects of the phenomenon on haut bourgeois French children in what art historians have traditionally interpreted as sentimental representations of the domestic sphere. Then, as well as today, toys were more than just a means of entertainment. Gender-specific toys were intended to aid in normalization, especially in terms of the performance of heteronormative femininity and masculinity. However, the act of playing with toys, whether it is conforms to or rebels against socio-cultural norms, queers children. By extension, the very expectation that children behave heteronormative adults during playtime queers their chronological development as well as the concept of childhood innocence, itself a problematic construction. By deploying theories of the queer child posed by Kathryn Bond Stockton, Steven Bruhm, and Natasha Hurley, this paper will dismantle the binaries associated with seemingly heteronormative childhood in the art of Cassatt and Morisot.

Richard Turnbull, Fashion Institute of Technology
Western/Non-Western: The Dimming of the Light (at Last?)
This paper examines, through the lens of contemporary art historical pedagogy and practice, the waning of a long active trope in the construction and teaching of the history of art: the juxtaposition and/or opposition of western and non-western visual cultures. In many traditional academic classification schema (including that still in use by SUNY, or the State University of New York), students register for art history classes in order to fulfill a number of General Education requirements, namely Western Civilization or Other World Civilizations (Non-Western Civilizations). The meaning of such distinctions in globally intertwined modernities seems long past any usefulness and yet such binary distinctions persevere, at least in administrative structures if not always in the classroom. Is there in fact any life left in this binary approach to visual cultures? By summarizing recent work in the study of Islamic art and civilization (which had significant contact with western/European culture in the Mediterranean world) and Oceanic art (where contact with the West came about largely through colonialist, commercial and missionary impulses) we can better understand if and how the binary paradigm is still a valid and useful one.

Jonathan Cantarero, City University of New York School of Law
My topic suggests an ethical justification for involuntary commitment of persons with mental illnesses. My proposal fits within the intersection of mental health, law and philosophical ethics.
           A state may involuntary commit a person who is (1) a mentally ill and (2) dangerous to themselves or others. Each requirement is authorized under binary rationales: “Mental illness” and “dangerousness to self” under parens patriae doctrine (that the state has an obligation to care for those who cannot care for themselves) and “mental illness” and “dangerousness to others” under the State’s police power (that the state should protect society from potentially dangerous acts of individuals). I use primarily court cases and philosophical scholarship in my analysis.
           First, I argue that parens patriae doctrine is a person-centered approach readily defended by Kant’s second formulation of the Categorical Imperative: “The Formula of Humanity.” I analyze this perspective and then critique it via its “rational capacity” underpinnings. Second, I argue that police power is a society-centered approach which finds support, primarily, in “Negative Utilitarianism.” I then critique this view under Foucault’s “Social-Control Thesis”.
           I conclude that both rationales ultimately work together to provide an acceptable happy-medium.?

Nicholas Salazar, San Francisco State University
"I don't really know what I am": Unconventionality, Unreliability, and Permeability in "The Double"
Jose Saramago's novel "The Double" is above all else a text that refuses to adhere to narrative binaries. The text plays with narratological levels through its transgression of different discourse and story levels, utilizing paratextual devices, as well as its use of mise en abyme. Further, the narrative metalepsis and metafictional elements tear at the relationship between narrator and naratee. The narrator's constant use of "we" has multiple functions which ultimately draw attention to the complex relationship between reader and writer which is masked in its limited representation as a binary. This relationship is further stressed in the text's treatment of time which often leads the reader to feel they are reading events in real-time only to be pushed back and reminded of the text's status as a textual artifact in which the events have already taken place. Further, the reliability of the ambiguous narrator is often called into question through their constant questioning of narrative choices-often defending them to the reader-and open admission of unreliability. Ultimately this narrative form that problematizes different binaries doubles the content of the novel, where binaries such as self/other are rendered fluid in the relationship between the doppelgangers.

Kim Jacobs-Beck, University of Cincinnati-Clermont College
Stage into Page onto Soundstage: Blurring the Lines between Nineteenth Century Theatre and Novels
Using Oliver Twist as an early example of Dickens' development of serialized fiction, I plan to examine how staging conventions may have shaped early novel serialization in magazines. I also see a parallel relationship between the stage and the novel running in the other direction-how the novel, especially in serialized form, shaped the development of recurring characters into whole series of both short stories, such as Sherlock Holmes, and later genre novels, particularly of the detective variety. Of course, those works of fiction were then translated into film and television, demonstrating the overlapping approaches to storytelling in these genres.
           While Dickens did not write serial novels of the Holmesian variety, he did lay the groundwork for series fiction, developing literary techniques of plotting, suspense, and emotional connection for the audience through the use of exaggerated, nearly allegorical stock characters along with more realistic characters both clearly derived from the stage and reintroduced into later commercially-driven genre fiction. The key to characters who catch on with audiences is an emotional investment in that character. Genre fiction, of course, quite often translates exceptionally well to film, and franchise films such as James Bond, the many iterations of Sherlock Holmes, the Bourne series, and the many comic book action films currently in multiplex cinemas attest to the durability of such series and sequels. I argue that the success of these franchises is based in large part upon emotional elements that are closely connected to the Victorian melodramatic stage.

Sarita Cannon, San Francisco State University
Beyond the Tragic Mixedblood and the Super-Mulatta: Revising Multiracial Identity in Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony and Danzy Senna's Caucasia
The emergence of Critical Mixed Race Studies reflects a real-world reality in which mixed-race identities are becoming the rule rather than the exception. This transdisciplinary approach to understanding the mutability of racial boundaries serves as an antidote to constructions of the mixed-race body as either tragic (because it belongs nowhere) or triumphant (because it "transcends" race). With this framework in mind, I examine two novels with multiracial protagonists: Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony (1976) and Danzy Senna's Caucasia (1998). Ceremony follows the journey of Tayo, a young mixedblood man who returns to his Laguna Pueblo community in New Mexico after fighting in World War II and searches for spiritual and cultural wholeness. Caucasia tells the story of Birdie, a teenager of African and European ancestry living in Boston in the 1970s who "passes" as a white Jewish girl living with her white mother when her parents divorce. Through their attention to the ways in which place and environment inform the various racialized identities that these main characters navigate, Silko and Senna complicate prevailing conceptions of racial hybridity within different American communities. Both gesture towards new understandings of multiraciality that move beyond stereotypes in order to illustrate how place inflects mixed-race identities.

Edmund Cueva, University of Houston-Downtown
Binary Thinking, Myth, and Tragedy
It has often been noted that the basic structure found in Graeco-Roman myths is generally binary in nature-especially when these myths appear in the ancient Greek tragedies. For example, in the case of Euripides' Bacchae both ancient and most modern commentators have pointed out that the design and success of the play is framed around the polarities that exist between the natures of the two main characters, Dionysus and Pentheus. The story focuses on a conflict between two dynamic forces: one force is religious, the other is political and represents order and the crown. The crown's representative is peevish, puritanical, and obdurate in nature and opposes different forms of worship. The representative of the divine is vibrant, open to different beliefs, fun-loving, and loves music, drink, and women. The play ends with the religious character destroying his political enemy. Sophocles' Antigone is another play often discussed in terms of the binary nature of its plot: old/young, male/female, divine law/man-made law, private duty/public duty, etc. The Antigone ends with destruction for all involved. This paper will revisit both plays to demonstrate that modern adaptations have moved away from emphasizing or highlighting the binary to nuanced versions that offer polyvalent interpretations.

Panel
Karen von Kunes, Yale University
"Morality vs. Immorality: Its Boundary and Beyond in Contemporary Literature" An Inquiry into Steven Pinker's Theory on Submission and Conformity to Societal Norms: Its Interpretation in Milan Kundera's "The Joke" and Goh Poh Seng's "If We Dream Too Long."
In view of Pinker's theory on submission and conformity to social norms and its interpretation, this paper critically examines a trajectory of two fictional characters in two novels written by their authors in the late 1960s as a response to the formation of new norms within each society, Czech and Singaporean. The two anti-heroes, Ludvik Jahn in Milan Kundera's first novel The Joke, and Kwang Meng in Goh Poh Seng's first novel, too, If We Dream Too Long, face challenges imposed on them via moralistic demands during the difficult transitional periods of their societal structures. One character takes refuge in carefully planned revenge; the other in daydreaming of better places. While the most fundamental answer to the two characters' internal struggles may be embedded in the plain statement of the 19th century novelistic character by Robert L. Stevenson, Dr. Jekyll, 'all human beings are commingled out of good and evil,' it is essential to add the dimension of Steven Pinker, one of the world's prominent cognitive scientists, who suggests that less morality might affect human behavior positively and enhance society betterment. Pinker summarizes it the following way: "Understanding, recruiting, and indeed minimizing human moralization is a great way to leverage greater understanding of human nature to make the world a better place."
           The question of morality is complex, multi-leveled and subjective, tied to one's perception and purpose. Each character-Ludvik Jahn and Kwang Meng-eventually find their way amidst the uncertainty of mainstream life, and the reader has the feeling that they contributed to building the better world by their individualistic approaches and experiences because, as Kundera claims and Pinker implies, 'human existence cannot represent one single and absolute truth.'
           The above quote is taken from the online interview with Lace Greene "Steven Pinker: Less morality for a better society?" that took place at the 2013 Festival of The Economist's World.

Gwendolyn Dolske, Loyola Marymount University
The Crossroads between Literature, Ethics, and Technology
On what occasion do these seemingly binary studies housed in the humanities and sciences interlace? This paper aims to examine the intersection of literature, ethics, and technology. In what ways can these disciplines inform each other? I will begin by exploring each in and of itself; for example, what is literature? Then, I discuss the origin of the idea that these areas of study are antithetical at worst and disconnected at best. Finally, I will draw from examples in literature that draw discussion towards ethical implications in technology.

John McHone
Subjective Histories: An Examination of the John Smith Narrative
There is no clear distinction between winners and losers in history and the story of John Smith's journey to the new world is evidence of this concept. Smith's The General Historie of Virginia, written closest in time to the actual account, is presented by a biased author who is also the protagonist in the narrative. Smith portrays himself as the epic hero on a new odyssey furthering the political agenda of King James with overt racism. John Barth's portrayal of Smith in The Sot-Weed Factor is much less favorable to the historical figure. By using the genre of parody to deconstruct Smith, he in turn deconstructs the notion of history itself. Finally, Disney's Pocahontas portrayal of Smith is-arguably-the representation closest to the American public's current perception. Disney's primary goal of selling theater tickets is heavily influenced by the rise of environmental awareness and political-correctness in the mid 1990's. Throughout these accounts, the authors' depictions of Smith further the goals of the text in which they are presented.

Jessica Cory, East Carolina University
From Gatewood to Davis: How Technology Has Changed the Way We Write About the Appalachian Trail
In 1955, Emma Rowena "Grandma" Gatewood set out to hike the Appalachian Trail. She had not arranged for anyone to meet her with supplies at particular points, carried no sleeping bag or tent, and completed her first solo hike at the age of 67. Fast-forwarding to 2011, Jennifer Pharr Davis, carrying only bottles, a cell phone, and energy bars, hiked the Appalachian Trail in a record time of 46 days, 11 hours, and 20 minutes. Both hikers, and many more including Bill Bryson, Earl Shaffer, and Mike Hanson, have written accounts of their experiences trekking what many fondly call the "AT." What separates Shaffer and Gatewood's accounts from many later hikers' words is the difference and utilization of technology, particularly in the case of Hanson who, as a blind individual, used GPS to travel the entire route. Technology's transition into use on the AT greatly impacts the way the trail is written about as well as influencing what its travelers perceive, experience, and share. This presentation will explore the ways in which technology has affected our understanding of Appalachian Trail nature through those writers who have shared their stories of traversing its 2000-ish miles.

Shawn Tucker, Spencer Young, Elon University
Seven Deadly Sins Three Different Ways
This panel brings together three scholars who teach courses on the Seven Deadly Sins. Dr. Young's course carefully examines the medieval context wherein this tradition was central and compelling. Dr. Tucker explores the tradition as a way for students to develop their own critical understanding and creative responses to that rich tradition. This panel brings together different disciplinary and pedagogical approaches that treat similar content. This panel will assemble individual insights and approaches to inspire new connections and insights not only about the Seven Deadly Sins but about scholarship and pedagogy.

Leila May, NC State University
Monstrous Binaries: An Approach to Teaching Mary Shelley's Frankenstein
Mary Shelley's Frankenstein has emerged as one of our most enduring cultural icons. The story that began as the dream of a nineteen-year-old girl has entered into our collective unconscious in ways that Shelley herself would never have imagined possible. Not only are there hundreds of films inspired by Shelley's monstrous vision but the novel is now firmly ensconced in our pedagogical canon and is taught in courses at all levels and in multiple disciplines. The modernity of many of Shelley's preoccupations all contribute to its power and cultural currency, and the richly layered, over determined nature of Shelley's text work has led to a plethora of different critical analyses and approaches. No surprise, then, that Frankenstein has been turned into a veritable litmus test of contemporary criticism. One useful pedagogical approach to this complex work is to view Frankenstein as an exploration of certain binaries that lay out and then threaten to collapse these diametrical oppositions (monstrosity/normality, male/female, natural/unnatural, among others), thereby calling into question the seemingly reified distinctions between these terms.

Donald Palmer, Emeritus
The Collapsed Binaries of Baroque Dreams: Paranoia and Madness in René Descartes' "Meditations"
I will explore the establishment and eventual collapse of key binary oppositions between the waking state and the dream state, and then between reason and insanity, established in Descartes's "Meditations on First Philosophy." I will tease out this dialectic by treating Descartes as if he is a baroque poet rather than (merely) a philosopher of rationalism. Briefly, Descartes's method of radical doubt leads him to realize that it is impossible to distinguish between waking and dreaming. Furthermore, he establishes that the dream state is a form of insanity and that therefore we can never be certain that we are not mad. Descartes's escape from madness is successful only if his proofs of God's existence are valid. But, Descartes has painted himself into a solipsistic corner; if he is dreaming, or mad, or both, his proofs of God's existence may be false (as, indeed, they are). But even in failure Descartes has a back-up plan, and a very baroque one at that. If he cannot have God, in his hubris he will become God. His "I am" will not be unlike the "I am what am" of the God of Moses speaking from the Burning Bush.

Alani Hicks-Bartlett, UC Berkeley
Binaries of Loss and Desire: Catullus, Ariosto, and Cicero in Montaigne's "De l'amitié"
This paper examines the curious use of intertextuality and self-referentiality in Montaigne's 28th essay from Book 1, "De l'amitié"-a heartfelt and emotional essay that is fundamental to understanding Montaigne's articulation of Self and Other through his analysis of the social and affective bonds that unite individuals. In this essay, Montaigne uses his friend, the author and statesman Etienne de La Boétie, as a paradoxical ideal. That is, La Boétie stands as an unattainable exemplar of singularity and perfection, for a friendship such as the one he offered to Montaigne can never be replicated. Indeed, since Montaigne insists that a union rivaling theirs will rarely, if ever, be attained again ("c'est beaucoup si la fortune y arrive une fois en trois siecles"), the two men's friendship paradoxically becomes both the standard against which all relationships should be compared, and the standard that ultimately distinguishes and separates their friendship from all others.
           By offering a reading of three pivotal textual moments in which Montaigne quotes the classical authors Catullus and Cicero, and the medieval epic poet Ariosto in order to define his relationship with La Boétie, this paper analyzes what Montaigne hopes to achieve by situating his friendship as "exemplary" yet using examples to describe it. Moreover, as these intertextual references initially seem rather ill-fitting for an ode to friendship, given that they offer very pessimistic and violent understandings of desire and loss, the citations offer insight into Montaigne's philosophy on intertextuality and the use of exemplars as an artistic and expository methodology.

Lisa Austin, Edinboro University of PA and CivitasErie
Knotting the Thread #2: Patching Erie's urban grid
In her presentation, Austin will discuss how her social sculpture practice serves to "knot the thread" of urban communities in Erie, PA. Through the place-based collaborative she co-founded in 2004 (CivitasErie), Austin has helped create grass-roots groups advocating for "preservation, thoughtful urban design, improved transportation and sustainable economic development" in the Great Lakes "rust-belt" city. During her presentation, Austin will discuss Civitas and collaborative efforts to create an Eastside McBride Viaduct Park, to prevent demolition of a crucial pedestrian path over busy rail tracks that divide the city. CivitasErie.com

Michele Austin Dennehy, Conservator in Private Practice, Severna Park, MD. Currently working on contract at the Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History
Knotting the Thread #2: Learning to stitch what has been torn
In her presentation, Washington, D.C. area objects conservator, Michele Austin Dennehy, will discuss her work with Polynesian community scholars and practitioners to conserve tapa (bark cloth) collected from 1838-42 by the U.S. Exploring Expedition. She will also review her three years of work on a conservation project with Alaskan Native advisors to return "hundreds of indigenous Alaska artifacts to their place of origin" to permit "access for hands-on study by Alaska native elders, artists and scholars." These objects traveled from the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C. to the Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center at the Anchorage Museum, in Anchorage, Alaska for long-term loan. https://www.anchoragemuseum.org/about-us/museum-spaces/smithsonian-arctic-studies-center/

Martha Gorzycki, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA
Knotting the Thread #2: Voices from Kaw Thoo Lei, An Animated Documentary, A Cross-Cultural Collaboration, Representing The Un-Representable
This discussion highlights the collaborative process of making an animated documentary with and about Karen people from Burma (Myanmar). After sixty plus years of civil war, military violence and genocide, Karen survivors believe the world has turned its back. How is it possible to represent what is unrepresentable and enable their voices to be heard? How can the fantastic medium of animation serve to represent collective trauma and honor the Karen who have courageously shared their testimonies? The collaborators agree, that too little media attention has buried their suffering. An impressionistic use of stop-motion provides a visual landscape for hearing the Voices From Kaw Thoo Lei.

Nickolas Knightly, University of California, Santa Cruz
Wisdom Is a Butterfly: What happens to the binary when we put it in a nondualistic chrysalis
There are perceived problems arising from (or with) binaries. We want to get beyond these binaries, and thus beyond the problems we discovered. We develop compelling solutions. Despite appearances, those solutions may actually fail to free us from the binary, because it is so deeply embedded in language, thought, and action. Though we may seem to treat various symptoms of binary oppositions, we leave the underlying condition unchanged, and the disease festers.
           In this paper, I present a version of nondual philosophy that can help us more fully transcend binary oppositions. It involves a critique of the binary, including an analysis of what we need to do to overcome or skillfully navigate binary opposition without doing violence to the binary aspects of our lives. For instance, we cannot cross the street unless we can distinguish between ourselves and oncoming traffic. But we must also accomplish something radical enough to heal the malady. The approach of this paper facilitates what I will call a transformation of the structure of the binary. I will show how, by shifting that structure, we can metamorphose our relationship with both binary and not-binary, in a way that opens up new possibilities for discourse and action.

Dylan Cheek, Creighton University
Young Lovers, Doves, and Lionesses: A New Space for Femininity in Homeric Similes
For David Porter similes exist in an in-between space of the work where no one interpretation can be canonical, for doing so would deny the possibilities that come from the novel interpretation of the listener "responding to the openings in the language." (450) Similarly, Schiller contextualizes gender identification through liminality, where permeability allows for a soft assembly of gender and of masculinity particularly. That there exists such an overlap between Porter's subjectivity of Homeric similes and Schiller's fluid gender construction warrants a look into Homer's portrayal of femininity as juxtaposed onto his principally masculine characters through simile - so as to move past the conception of epic as being wholly and aggressively masculine.
           First, I will look towards femininity within similes related to Hector, positing that Hector's characterization through simile serves as an example of a negative perception of femininity, or what Schiller calls the "vertically oriented and hierarchically dominating" (41) approach of normative masculinity. I will transition into a more positive femininity of "a horizontal, nondominating opening to the other," (Schiller 36) in expansion of Casey Dué and Mary Ebbott's theory of soldiers protecting their fellow soldiers being equated "in the traditional Homeric language" with "acting as a mother." (9) Bibliography Dué, Casey and Mary Ebbott. "Mothers-in-Arms: Soldier's Emotional Bonds and Homeric Similes." War, Literature & The Arts 24.1 (2012): 1-17. Academia. Web. 13 Sept. 2014. Porter, David. "The Similes at Iliad 16.7-11 Once Again: Multiple Meanings." Classical World 103.4 (2010): 447-454. Project Muse. Web. 12 Sept. 2014. Schiller, Britt-Marie. "Permeable Masculinities: Gender Reverie in Richard Serra's Torqued Sculptures." Studies in Gender and Sexuality 11.1 (2010): 35-46. Ebscohost. Web. 12 Sept. 2014.

Timothy Green, St. Edward's University
Liminality and Morality: The Moral Imagination and the Humanities
The humanities--and the literary imagination, in particular--address scenes of moral complexity wherein binary oppositions manifest but are ultimately dissolved and moral vertigo often ensures. Using fiction and poetry, this presentation speculates on the processes of the moral imagination; it considers the literary field as an open liminal space that induces the reader to improvise moral judgments in light of an emerging complicated and uncategorizable context. Works by Toni Morrison, Maria Howe, and others will provide occasions for discussing liminality and morality.

Antonio Sustaita, University of Guanajuato
Muerte sin fin (Death without end). Beyond the Binary Opposition Corps-Corpse in Teresa Margolles' Work.
The main objective of this communication is to analyze the political dimension in the work of Teresa Margolles, a word that seems to defy the binary opposition corps-corpse. In her work, closely related to violence in Mexico, it is possible to find a tense relationship between art and politics up to the point it is questioned as a work of art. Her work has evolved from work related to violent death victims to specifically those produced by Mexico's drug-war. In spite of this fact she was selected as the representative artist in the Mexican pavilion at the 2009 Venice Biennale. It may be stated, as hypothesis, that there would be two main points at the core of what could be thought as a aesthetic problem: a scopic regime and a case of visual parrhesia. The artist chooses to see and represent something not allow to be seen nor talked by the state government powers.

Monette Bebow-Reinhard, Independent Scholar
Killing Custer: Deliberate Defeat at the Little Bighorn
Bebow-Reinhard presents her research of Custer's death as old soldier, Henry, who was with Crook at the Rosebud and always said the army never tried hard to catch the Indians because they were good people." I present evidence demonstrating how the U.S. government knew that the only way to get the Black Hills was to force the Indians to fight, expecting a defeat. Historical advances, and truth in history, is found in exploring the attitude on both sides of a battle. During my 18 years of research following a single soldier's orders of his 20 years of service, these attitudes naturally emerge. Covered will be the Allison Commission attempt to purchase the Black Hills, Grant's secret meeting related to soldiers' orders away from Fort Laramie, the December 6th ultimatum, and reactions of General Crook and what led to the Battle of the Rosebud, with concluding remarks of how all of this meant death to General George Custer's command. The binary approach here is nature versus progress.

Jen Rushforth, San Jose State University
The Legal is Now Illegal: Social Constructions of Law and Morality
To define the illegal, one must also define the legal. In every society, those in power construct what constitutes crime and what does not. Thus, social constructs of law and of crime change with who is in power, but also with the whims of societal pressures. Constructed moral panics serve to shame society into calling for new definitions of illegal. This paper seeks to analyze the social constructions of law and morality, with specific regard to the United States' treatment of drugs, its criminalization of movement, and its ever-increasing use of prison as a mechanism of social control. Radical changes to constructions of law must be made for the sake of equity. Self-serving politicking must be replaced with an understanding of the actual societal needs for laws. The criminal law cannot be used as a way to control, marginalize, and demonize whichever group of people are out of favor with the power - law must be fair and equal.

Heejung Sim, San Francisco State University
"Anti-Colonial Anxiety: Internal and External Exile in Moth Smoke and The Namesake"
This paper explores the exilic conditions of postcolonial countries in twenty first century in The Namesake and Moth Smoke. I argue that these two texts investigate the postcolonial country's state of exile and the constant anxiety of globalization. I examine the state of internal and external exile that characters go through in both texts and argue that there are specifically two types of exiles: physical exile and internal, mental exile. What I mean by mental exile is that it is an exile from one's notion of true 'home' and one's sense of perpetual mental alienation from their homeland because of globalization. I further examine how these physical and metal exilic conditions are similar and different, as well as how they manifest themselves in the texts by examining the protagonists Gogol in Namesake and Daru in Moth Smoke and their interactions with other characters and the material world in which they inhabit. I will first examine the narrative structures of these two texts and move on to examine the physical and mental exilic conditions each protagonist go through and how these exiles progresses or destroy them.

Nancy Hills, Utah State University
Clothing: an event in history that continues to happen
In 2013 I received the Janet Arnold Grant from the Society of Antiquaries in London. Arnold was a British clothing historian, costume designer, conservator, and author. Her focus on period accuracy made the study of historic clothing a serious discipline.
           As part of the grant I have developed patterns from two clothing collections in the UK including the Snowshill Collection at Berrington Hall in Leominster and the Hereford Museum in Hereford. Thus far I have developed patterns from 45 garments. In May 2014 at the Society of Antiquaries as part of their public lecture series, I delivered a presentation for which eleven of these gowns were recreated in monochromatic mockups and modeled.
           The garment is a visual tactile biography of its wearer. Surviving garments help us to bridge the gap between then and now and allow us to encounter the past at first hand. Clothing is the most intimately human of the surviving decorative arts.
           I propose to present a similar presentation utilizing PowerPoint, which will discuss the discoveries, reflect the historical trends and suggest practical applications as a storyteller as I currently doing with a play I am now designing.

Christopher Stevens, Indiana State University
The Bluidie Tragedie o' Macbeth: The Complete Scots Mither Tongue Translation and Celtic Adaptation of Shakespeare's Scottish Play
Shakespeare, the most canonical of canonical authors, has a voice that is a permanent part of our lingua franca. For the first time in literary and stage history, I have created an academic-creative hybrid which tackles English poetics versus Scottish poetics combined with an argument to include Hecate, who is important to Scottish mythology, along with Hecate's two oft-excluded songs, wrapped up inside a new Scottish translation and adaptation. Many purists consider any non-Elizabethan English performance of Shakespeare's works as blasphemous while some traditionalists argue that any new interpretation will fracture the canon. Against the backdrop of my translation, I will prove this is not true. Using First Folio of 1623, I have directly connected Shakespeare's original work to the heartbeat of Scottish history, Celtic culture, and social thinking. As Walter Benjamin stated, new literary interpretations of older material "is the measure of a work's afterlife. Every literary work is incomplete until it is translated . . . it is only through translation that it can truly come to life." My fresh Scottish tongue translation, coupled with a strong Celtic-themed adaptation, of Macbeth will allow today's audience an opportunity to discover new connotations that only de-contextualisation and re-contextualisation will permit.

Jennie Wakefield, Tamalpa Institute
Remembering the Body: Halprin Life/Art Processes in a Landscape Architecture Studio
In industrialized culture, a separation between life and art echoes a dualistic mind/body split. This separation is especially germane in design disciplines. Designers must grapple with the creative source of ideas, as well as argue for their ideas to stakeholders and gatekeepers. The pre-reflexive mind can be a source of creativity and of the existential immediacy we long for, but it is not easily tapped and evoked, especially in academic or professional settings. We extol the value of process yet are driven by product, not to mention self consciousness. A project facilitated by the author in Clemson University's landscape architecture department drew on the body of work created by landscape architect Lawrence Halprin (1916-2009), his wife postmodern dancer Anna Halprin (b.1948), and their daughter expressive arts therapist Daria Halprin (b.1948) to explore the invention process in design and tensions between life and art. The project's integration of Bauhaus pedagogy, psychology, dance, phenomenology, ecology, ritual, social activism, and facilitative approaches to leadership is analyzed here through a model borrowed from clinical practices in expressive arts therapy.

Chase Clow, Dominican University of California
Crossing the Human/Nature Divide: Musings on Landscape in the Writings of 20th and 21st Century Photographers
Current debates about photography in landscape studies, building on the work of Susan Sontag, center on issues of imperialism, tourism, and colonization. The photographer's role is frequently critiqued as an extension of human efforts to dominate the other-than-human beings, forms and forces that shape our environments. Correspondingly, photographic images are interrogated for the ways they perpetuate binary oppositions of wilderness vs. civilization and human vs. nature and how these images reinforce landscape as "landscope" and the dominion of the "imperial eye." However, writings by, and interviews with twentieth and twenty-first century landscape photographers tell a different story. Whether focusing upon aspen trees or grain silos, mountain peaks or mountains of discarded tires, these photographers speak of an approach to land arising from a desire for communion. They describe experiences of connection with landscapes both inhabited and uninhabited by humans and suggest ways of seeing beyond the binary surfaces into the cosmological significance of land, revealing our interconnection and interdependence with the other-than-human. This talk highlights the key insights of photographers from Ansel Adams to Sebastião Salgado and explores the ways an examination of their writings changes the discourse about landscape photography.

Randall Horton, Houston Community College
The Deception of Masculinity: Grief from Antiquity to Descartes
Contemporary psychological theory holds that men and women grieve differently with men grieving through actions rather than emotional expression. Modern male responses to grief are part of an ancient tradition. Ancient literature provides consistent advice for men for dealing with loss of friends and loved ones: Men should understand rationally that death is not a harm and thereby be protected from the ravages of emotional upheaval. Although the ancients held that the rational and moral man would not fall victim to the crippling effects of grief, Zhuangzi, Confucius, Seneca, Petrarch, and Cicero all succumbed to decompensation when faced with the loss of a close student or family member. Some locked themselves away to hide their grief while others acknowledged their grief, taking varying amounts of blame for their weakness. It is at least conceivable that men's patterns of grief are more deception than biological fact. Feminists have written a great deal about the feminine need to deceive for survival. Men and women may share in both their grief and their deception.

Stephanie Camacho-Van Dyke, California State University, Fullerton
"(S)he's Lost Control": Queer Eroticism Towards Troilus in Troilus and Criseyde
Geoffrey Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde examines queer performativity and eroticism through a multifaceted scope. It enables both heterosexuality and homosexuality to serve as a permeating theme throughout its narrative framework. This duality provides an opportune moment to reveal complex intimacies between characters-from nuances to underlying implications to the candid portrayal of heated relationships, all which invoke an array of sexual fantasies and queer desires that come into play. This paper examines Troilus as an exemplary figure for his masculine embodiment. While he is initially detached from the idea of love and focuses on emulating his masculine presentation, a twist in the narrative transforms Troilus from his masculine identity to an unfamiliar effeminacy, where he falls vulnerable to his intense emotions. At this point he notices and falls in love with Criseyde and her beauty. Interestingly, Criseyde enters the narrative as a headstrong figure whose identity strongly associates with masculine qualities. Chaucer's presentation on this gender role reversal allows an alternative world to come into play, a world where Criseyde is able to independently assess and initiate her agency without male influence or control. Troilus, on the contrary, inevitably falls under the male influence of Pandarus, Criseyde's uncle, who manipulates his position between Troilus and Criseyde's relationship in order to be closer to him. Though Pandarus's presents himself as trying to help Troilus obtain Criseyde's love, there are multiple underlying motives in his behavior that raise the audience's speculation. Pandarus' queer nuances toward Troilus allude to his homoerotic tendencies, which further complicates the lives of the other characters in the narrative.

Laura Nash, Fairfield University
Duke Ellington and American Popular Music: High/Low, Black/White…?
Jazz is a fascinating study of multiple binary systems: high/low; black/white; popular entertainment/historical artifact. Today, jazz supported with funding and celebrated as an important authentic American art form. Founded in 1965, the National Endowment for the Arts did not initially recognize jazz; in 72 years, the Pulitzer Prize for music has only been awarded to one jazz composition (1997). The "American-ness" of jazz comes through an amalgamation of folk and roots musics, but became a cultural juggernaut, cutting race, gender, and class, through the recording and film industries, the dance craze, and its core ideologies of hope and rebellion. Following the War of 1812, Americans wanted art forms that would assert our nation's cultural independence; but by the Jazz Age, "culture" was associated with upper class refinement and drawing boundaries. Duke Ellington, arguably one of the most important composers of the 20th century, defied musical categorization and transcended boundaries. He wrote the song that names the Swing era, as well as long-form pieces that tell the history of Black people in America. Through his music, Ellington provides a lens by which to examine the spectrums, gradations, multiplicity, and mixture of what we call American culture.

Geoffrey Green, San Francisco State University
"'Ancient Footprints Are Everywhere': Bob Dylan's 'Self-Portrait(s) in a Convex Mirror'"
All too often, Bob Dylan's work is interpreted in terms that would violate most literary conventions of appropriateness-in terms of his life (the biographical fallacy); in terms of his intentions (the intentional fallacy), and so on. The problem is most conspicuous surrounding his most notable critical failure, Self Portrait, the previously unreleased tracks recently collected as Another Self Portrait, and the contemporaneous albums: John Wesley Harding, Nashville Skyline, New Morning, The Basement Tapes. Proceeding beyond the binaries that constrict the understanding of Dylan's significance (literary vs. mass culture; poetry vs. song; worthy of explication vs. entertainment, etc.), I argue that Dylan's songs of this period respond especially well to an approach employing interdisciplinary history of ideas, using literary allusions and tropes, without restriction as to whatever Dylan's intentions may have been (to the extent he may have known them initially). Of particular significance is Dylan's interest in painting and portraiture, with its associational implications that representation details not only external reality, but also interior states of desire. The result is an analysis placing Dylan squarely in a literary tradition, connecting Romantic and Victorian assessments of the importance of art with 20th century interrogations of form and genre-and unifying them with a sense of contemporary cultural significance.

Sophie Horrocks, Kings College, London
Gustave Charpentier's Louise, bohemia and the inbetween: mediating between constructions of operatic time in the nineteenth century
The different configurations of time represented on the late nineteenth-century Parisian stage present a clear binary, opposing fast, hedonistic lifestyles with slow, comfortable ones. Moreover, during this period, this binary of temporal experience became increasingly conflated with the idea of physical space and morality and even gender. As illustrated in operas such as Verdi's La Traviata and Massenet's Manon, the operatic stage served as a mode of urban discourse that explicitly polarized contemporary ideas concerning public lifestyles. As a way of bridging this binary construction, this paper seeks to look at Gustave Charpentier's 1900 opera Louise as a mediating agent. It presented a third, in-between makeup of time, physical space and mode of living simultaneously emerging in Paris: the suburb of Monmartre and its Bohemian lifestyle. This paper will consider Louise alongside La Traviata and Manon, and the urban discourse that these operas enacted, to explore the mediating role of the former's configuration of time, place and lifestyle in order to shed light on the previously existing onstage binary, and ponder its deeper complexities.

Sarah George, CSU Fullerton, Saddleback College
Breaking Binaries: The Destruction of the Binaries of Gender and Colonial Identities in David Henry Hwang's M. Butterfly
In David Henry Hwang's M. Butterfly, the intersection of colonial and gender constructions underlie the identity reversals of Song Liling and Rene Gallimard. Both characters perform normative gender constructions, as Song acts as an ultra-feminized opera singer and Rene embodies a hyper-masculine business man's persona. In the normative binary construction of imperialism, Rene is the Western imperializing presence, and Song's Orientalist identity underlies her position as Other, which Edward Said and Franz Fanon have analyzed and critiqued. These characters confront the constructed nature of those gender and imperial identifications when they are forced to change. In the colonial and gender reversal, these characters ultimately come to embody the Other. Judith Butler's analysis of the performative nature of gender reiterates the normative binary split in these characters' gender identities. When Gallimard becomes oppressed in body and soul and Song penetrates into the position of power, the mimetics of the original binaries are reinforced, merely transitioning perceptions and gazes in the opposite direction within the same framework. Because the play hinges on change, motion, and reversal, and because Song does not at any point remain one dimensional or fixed, Hwang critiques the static quality of traditional binary frameworks of ethnicity and gender.

Jessica Burke, Hamilton College
The Frustrated Quest in One Hundred Years of Solitude
This paper explores the function of the quest in Gabriel García Márquez's 1967 novel Cien años de soledad (One Hundred Years of Solitude.) By examining the various characters' frustrated quests, I argue that the search (for gold, for meaning, for adventure, and for knowledge) is a driving force in the novel that propels the characters forward even as their trajectories echo those of their predecessors. As critics have indicated, the novel's plot advances in a spiral repetition. In my paper, I argue that two of the "constants" in the history of the Buendía family are the quest and the sense of frustration. Frustration motivates the quest, and the quest is inevitably frustrated. The frustrated quest, then, is revealed to be an essential component of the human condition for the novel's protagonists.

Clinton Buhler, Dixie State University
Evil Empire or Evil Empires? Soviet Dissident Artists and Cold War Politics
When Ronald Reagan infamously labeled the Soviet Union as the "Evil Empire" in 1983, he was articulating a critical assumption that was at root of Cold War politics: that one was either for capitalism and against socialism, or for socialism and against capitalism. This dichotomous view of the world was echoed elsewhere, such as in Margaret Thatcher's condemnation of unions as socialist "enemies within." Thus, when dissident Soviet artists defected to the West, it was widely assumed that their art would support the superiority of Western society. Many of these artists became immediately disillusioned as they realized that the tremendous enthusiasm surrounding their art in New York had much more to do with the fact that their art could be used to stoke the feelings of Western superiority than it did with the actual artistic messages they were attempting to convey. Having lived and worked within both political systems, these refugees produced work that was highly skeptical of both dominant systems of government, highlighting the uncomfortable similarities neither superpower wanted to acknowledge. This paper investigates the work of these artists as a vehicle to better understanding the twentieth century and undermining the binary understanding of the Cold-War world.

John R. Turner, Missouri State University
Reaching Toward the Other: Negotiating in a Binary World
This paper explores the author's experience in developing and delivering Writing for Social Change, a new general education offering at Missouri State University beginning in the fall semester of 2014. The course has attracted students who are passionate about a wide variety of causes; their viewpoints, however, are largely based in binary constructions: good/bad, liberal/conservative, western/eastern, etc. Compounding that binary mindset is a divisive media, the source of most students' information about causes, where students are too easily able to immerse themselves in a singular view and through social media interact only with those of similar thinking. Through a series of structured experiences, students gain a broader understanding of the historical roots of their causes and to listen to a variety of voices that contribute to the debate surrounding their issues. Additionally, through collaborative projects, students are required to consider each other's varied viewpoints as they formulate strategies and negotiate content.

Tom Strawman, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee
Beyond the Human/Non-Human Divide: Ecological Imagination in Louise Erdrich's, "Last Report on the Miracles at Little No Horse"
Louise Erdrich's stunning novel _The Last Report on the Miracles at Little No Horse_ (2001) returns once again to the principle characters in her earliest fictions, focusing on the strangeness and wonder of Father Damien Modeste's inner life, a sympathetic Catholic priest introduced in Tracks (1988) whose current life and memories of nearly seventy-five years of service to the small Ojibwa settlement at Little No Horse embody the thematic and conceptual heart of _The Last Report_.
           In my analysis of this novel, I would like to argue that Erdrich presents the life-long conversion of Father Damien from conventional Catholic dualism (in which the cosmic forces of good are in deadly conflict with the forces of evil for the eternal fate of the human soul) to an Ojibwa religious understanding (in which the cosmos is not at war with itself nor is human destiny at the apex of some hierarchical great chain of being). Instead Father Damien gradually comes to agree with Vine Deloria, Jr., who describes in _God Is Red_ (1973) a pan-Indian religious sentiment in which "all inanimate entities have spirit and personality so that the mountains, rivers, waterfalls, even the continents and the earth itself have intelligence, knowledge, and the ability to communicate ideas. The physical world is so filled with life and personality that humans appear as one minor species without much significance and badly in need of assistance from other forms of life" (152-53). In this knowledge, Father Damien has gotten beyond the human/non-human divide so apparent in the "Fertile Crescent" religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam and attained to a practical knowledge of what anthropological linguist Jarold Ramsey calls "ecological imagination" in _Reading the Fire: The Traditional Indian Literatures of America_ (1999), the cultivation of "an imaginative awareness of man's beholden place in the natural world" and "radical recognition that we belong to the biosphere more than it belongs to us" (81). This is the awareness Erdrich's novel seeks to convey.
           To demonstrate this idea, I plan to consider four areas of narratological development, including
1) Father Damien's public life for nearly seventy-five years has been as a man, yet she is really a woman,
2) good and evil are made impossibly ambiguous in character and event, replaced instead by a continuum that ranges from love to its absence, including her own self-inflicted suicide,
3) the new church Father Damien eventually builds at Little No Horse is founded literally on an exposed rock shelf with its altar against exposed stone; here he delivers his consecration sermon to a gathering of snakes, no longer crushed down by the weight of the virgin Mary's foot, and
4) his current preoccupation to convince the Vatican that a life of unanswered letters to the Pope has borne abundant witness to the unfitness of Sister Leopolda (Pauline of Tracks) to be elevated to sainthood (due to the pride, self-absorption, and hatred of the world so evident in her life).

David Lara, Boston College
The "Promessi Sposi" of Don Carlos: A Verdian treatment of Manzonian Justice
Justice is one of the central themes of Alessandro Manzoni's I promessi sposi, finding a perfect representation within the novel's description of the conflicting relationships among the different social classes and in the accurate reconstruction of the principal cultural manifestations of the seventeenth century. Manzoni's narrative also gave ample resonance to this theme in light of the Risorgimento. In this vein he found his ideal interlocutor in Giuseppe Verdi who read I promessi sposi when he was only sixteen and became an instant admirer. My research studies Verdi's veneration of Manzoni that began with this first reading, culminating in the inspiration for his opera Don Carlos (1867) indebted to Manzoni's iconic novel.
           For years Verdi dreamt of adapting I promessi sposi for the opera stage. However, such an immense undertaking could never be realized. In my paper I maintain that Don Carlos demonstrates the themes of justice inspired by Manzoni's work, adopting a similar narrative pretext in setting the homonymous drama by Friedrich Schiller. Central to Don Carlos are the two betrothed who are prevented from marrying by the powers that be. In Verdi's opera this opposition between human and divine authority, and the resulting message on contemporary justice, that receives a representation inspired directly by Manzoni's masterpiece.

M. Arlene Chongson, LeMoyne-Owen College
Reassessing the Binary of the Sacred and the Secular in the Holy Week Celebration of the Philippines
The Philippines, being a nation of over eighty-five percent Catholics, has a long-standing, historical tradition of celebrating the Holy Week inside and outside the church. This paper will present a discussion of traditional, local practices such as the pasyon (chanted narrative poem of the Passion of Jesus Christ), the sinakulo (dramatic play of the passion), the prosesyon (procession of statues of saints), the salubong (Easter Sunday reenactment of the resurrection of Christ). These festivities are then juxtaposed with official ceremonies of the Catholic Church. While there exists a dichotomy between the formal and the informal, the boundary of difference within the sacred and the secular also intersects with each another.
This study proposes the view that these rituals are not of opposite polarity. Rather, these institutional and folk celebrations serve to support and complement one other, thereby assisting in maintaining the significance of the Holy Week celebration in the contemporary spiritual and cultural world of Filipinos.

Jacquelinne Kirkham, McMaster University
Penetrating Patriarchy: Making Sense of Multiple Masculinities through the Lived Experience of Pacific Coast Loggers, 1945-1975
This section of a dissertation on safety in the logging industry focuses on the stratification of white male privilege not only along class lines but also within the hierarchical power structure of the forest industry. Within logging culture prestige, which can be accompanied by privileges ranging from higher wages to better seating in the mess hall, is distributed according to a rigid hierarchy with the most dangerous jobs at the top and the least dangerous at the bottom. Attempts by companies to change this structure, part of larger policies targeting reduced accidents through a transformation of workers' masculinities, were often met with resistance from workers whose identities as men and as workers were threatened by changing definitions which had the potential to upend the traditional hierarchy. While the idea that there are multiple masculinities and that definitions of masculinity can convey privilege is not new to the North American historiography, this project is unique in its attempt to identify the mechanisms maintaining these rigid hierarchies and uniting perceived masculine actions to real world advantages.

Jennifer Shutek, University of Oxford
Palestinian-Israeli Cookbooks as Cultural Fusion:Deconstructing Binary Narratives in Palestine/Israel
This paper investigates the engagement of non-state actors with narratives of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict through the lens of food and food writing. It analyzes four cookbooks produced by Palestinians and Israelis to discuss several key ideas, which work toward deconstructing binaries between monolithic “Palestinian” and “Israeli” blocs. It deconstructs the cookbooks’ semiotics to explore gastronationalism, culinary diplomacy and cooperation, and foodways as sites of identity construction and resistance. This approach demonstrates the productive contribution of food studies to facilitating a grassroots understanding of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, illustrating the venue that cookbooks provide for members of civil society to represent themselves on national and international stages. This paper finds that cookbooks are items of consumption, representation, and performativity that enable Palestinians and Israelis to depict their experiences of the conflict to an international market. The humanizing force of cookbooks, and the fact that two of the four cookbooks are the products of collaboration between Palestinians and Israelis, point to the vibrant, fluctuating, and multivalent nature of identities within a conflict that is far too often reduced to a primordial conflict between “the Palestinians and the Israelis.”

Donna Phillips, Claremont Graduate University
Gentle Violence:Female Transgression and Proto-Feminism Within Horace Walpole's The Castle of Otranto
Although the main female characters in Horace Walpole's The Castle of Otranto seem to be obedient to patriarchal authority, Hippolita, Matilda and Isabella transgress within the novel by disobeying authority, keeping secrets, and putting their virginity at risk. This essay argues that by these transgressions, these female characters, far from being obedient, exhibit proto-feminist qualities of courage, independence and female altruism. The significance of these findings is that as "Gothic Grandmothers" these three female heroines define the characteristics of future Gothic heroines. Acting as secret liaisons between writer and reader, these Gothic heroines influenced generations of young female readers to realize their own individual power to incite change by questioning the male dominated society.

Emily Robles, California State University, Fullerton
Neither/Both: Overcoming Binaries in Written on the Body
Typically, the narrator of a story provides the reader a way to identify with the text. However, the most frequently cited aspect of Jeanette Winterson's Written on the Body is the unnamed narrator without a definitive gender. A first person point of view generally eliminates the need for a gender in the writing, but freedom from the male/female binary challenges the reader's ability to form an image of the narrator since the narrator participates in both male and female gender performances. An inconclusive gender also prevents the reader from neatly categorizing the relationship with Louise as hetero- or homosexual. The binaries around Louise are equally ambivalent. When she is diagnosed with cancer, the narrator can more easily separate Louise's person from her body and thus Other her. However, the narrator becomes so consumed by an obsession with cancer's effects on the body that what was previously a fragmented image of the Other morphs into the whole existence of the self. Driven by such strength and focus, the reader eventually questions whether Louise is more precious alive or dead. Winterson subverts the binary system by presenting a situation where all and none of the reader's perceptions are true.

Edward Charlberg, San Francisco State University
That "What The Fuck?!?!" Moment
Was a binary approach to life always the way of western mentality, or has it developed over time? With the advent of scientific reasoning, "truth" required evidence: it was either a fact or not. Categorization is the way humans make sense of the world, but it can be a dangerous practice in real-life application. A historical social-politcal study of the Medieval Knights from Arthurian suggests that binary thinking may not be "concrete." There is evidence of the non-binary mentality from the antiquities that appears in modern media heroic representation. Research suggests that the binary thinking formed with the emergence and progression of the Bourgeoisie elite. In the Medieval era, there were no clear binaries. It only seems so retrospectively. As time progressed, so did binary conventions polarizing elite power giving us the standard white male patriarchal society. It is in the WTF moment that collective ideology slams against counter evidence in the mosh-pit of popular discourse. In this experience we glimpse collective ideology at play when society reacts to the sensible or nonsensical, regardless of what we profess. Considering that academic institutions are now entangled with capitalist interests, what is the motivation of the ideological publisher to change this message?

Hesam Sharifian, Tufts University
Binarism as an Ideology: Two Case Studies in Theatrical Scholarship
During the twentieth century, several disciplines, especially among humanities and social sciences, confined themselves to thinking about their subject matters in terms of infinite sets of binaries, only to break away from this pattern with the emergence of Deconstructionism in the second half of the century. In this study, I will demonstrate the limitations of binarism in analyzing performances of the past. I shall argue that historiographical methods can still build upon the same governing principles of the last century without falling into fundamentally ahistorical methodologies of deconstruction. However, a deeper understanding of historical methodologies, especially the methodologies that require dividing the subject matter into sets of binaries, seems to be inevitable. By exploring two different case studies in theatrical scholarship, I will argue that a methodological awareness of the confinements of binarism can inspire theatre scholars to recognize the liminal nature of the 'overlooked' historical phenomena. Analyzing the scholarship focusing on the work of Elizabeth Inchbald in the early years of the nineteenth century, I will argue that the asymmetrical binary of male/female is still a major running force behind even the revisionist theatre histories, and by adherence to this dichotomist ideology, these studies fail to change the general scene of theatrical historiography. In the second part of the study, I will demonstrate that some of the problematic issues in dealing with theatre of the Middle East can be avoided, or at least historiographically addressed, if one thinks beyond the confinement of the Eastern/Western dichotomy.

Ken Gargaro, Robett Morris University
A Theatre practitioner's perspective on the emergence of the human 'truth of the moment' in Italian Renaissance Art.
I now understand why the Arts and Sciences have been partners for nearly a millennia.
           David, for instance, once only a monumental image to me; is now a person immersed in contemplation, a human being considering his chances, damping down his fear and focusing his energies.
           The compositional techniques of Raphael, Michelangelo and Da Vinci, once inspirational as organizational tools for me on the stage have taken on a new dimension. The philosophy of the Renaissance, the self worth of the individual, is embedded in the response of the figures to the scene being represented. Each person on the canvas has a personal story related to the event. I used to use these works as inspiration to arrange the bodies and heads for a pleasing 3 dimensional effect but now I see the characters are IN the circumstance, adding a quasi fourth dimension.
           One cannot perceive these awesome details without experiencing the sheer 'weight' and size of the paintings and the sculptures.
           On a visit to what is called the Galileo Museum, which is actually a most inspirational and complete collection of scientific instruments starting in the 14th century, I had an epiphany. The detail, inventiveness, skill and harmonious use of metal, numbers and shapes caused me to have a revelatory moment. I now understand why the Arts and Sciences have been partners for nearly a millennia. These early attempts at understanding the universe are works of art, made by skilled hands and inspired minds.

Melissa Dulebohn, San Francisco State University
Prejudice Perpetuated: Questioning the Qualifications for Personhood from the Past into the Future
My work focuses on the self/other binary by following the thread of “passing” from the Victorian era into present literary representations of the future. Drawing from William Wells Brown’s Victorian text, Clotel, my presentation would address the ephemeral distinction between self and other through the social issue of racial “passing” during the nineteenth century and the argument it presents in reference to the debate regarding the qualifications for personhood, specifically as it pertains to the issue of slavery. This analysis forms the foundation for addressing parallel issues in Philip K. Dick’s modern science fiction novel, Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? These works encourage reflection on the ever-evolving nature of the self/other binary; while the particular line between self and other is subject to change with time and may even blur, it nonetheless remains. Both works, past and present, deal with man-made societal divisions and binaries that help perpetuate prejudice.

Justin Pack, University of Oregon
Arendt's Triads
In The Human Condition and in the later The Life of the Mind, Hannah Arendt utilizes triadic distinctions instead of binary distinctions. Her triadic distinction in The Human Condition between action, work, and labor was intended to allow for a more complex analysis than is possible with only two terms. While three may not seem like much more than two, I argue it makes a world of difference. In her later works, Arendt repeated this triadic structure, dividing The Life of the Mind into Thinking, Willing and Judgment.
           My main focus is on the unfinished triadic structure of thinking, cognition and strategic action. Arendt died before finishing The Life of the Mind and I suggest if we follow her phenomenological analysis of thinking and cognition and supplement it with her discussion of Eichmann, we must flesh it out with the addition of strategic action. I argue this unfinished triad is the one of her most important insights and needs more attention.

Kevin Stein, Michael K. Ostrowsky, Southern Utah University
Building a Theoretical Framework for Defeasibility: Student Excuses as a Unique Form of Apologia Rhetoric
The paper, which analyzes the apologia strategies utilized by college students in their excuses to professors, represents a departure from the plethora of apologia studies that examine the face work of politicians, organizations, and celebrities by shifting the research focus to a less public context. The findings demonstrate that students employ a variety of strategies for maintaining an appropriate image with faculty including shifting blame ("my roommate left without me"), mortification ("I'm sorry I was late"), transcendence ("I was tending to a car crash victim"), and defeasibility ("my alarm did not go off"). Most of the strategies are consistent with William Benoit's comprehensive framework of image repair strategies, however, because defeasibility (arguing some external cause was to blame) was the most utilized strategy, we used a grounded theory approach to generate a new framework unique to this particular strategy. The paper addresses the implications of student excuses as a unique type of discourse and offers suggestions for other scholars wishing to expand the theory of apologia to include deeper discussions of individual strategies or to focus on the discourse happening in interpersonal contexts.

Jared Pearce, William Penn University
Poems from The Annotated A Murder of One
I will read from my in-production book of poems, The Annotated A Murder of One. The poems are reflections and extensions from phrases in a pop song (written by a band once based in San Francisco). This presentation compliments the conference theme because the poems seek to blur the lines between popular and (so-called) high art, between music and poetry, between love and understanding.
           Further, I'd like to present the song, read some poems and talk about their creation, and then invite the audience to also take some phrases and craft something of their own, and then have them read their creations in an effort to further ruffle the edges of presenter and audience, another binary that could be reduced (and which we often want to reduce, or at least say we do, but often don't because maybe we don't really want it reduced?).

Lauren Abrejera Bower, Loyola Marymount University
Reality Versus Image: Toward a Univocal Understanding of Form and Substance
In this paper, I shall address a topic of controversy in the area of ancient Greek metaphysics: the relation of form to sensible substance. A binary opposition of reality (ousia) and image is often used to express this relation, especially in Neoplatonic circles, which give rise to several metaphysical problems. My goal is to show how Aristotle's collapsing of this binary opposition as an alternative way of expressing the relation of form to sensible substance eliminates the aforementioned metaphysical problems. As a case study, I will show how the 'third man' problem is dissolved by observing Aristotle's reformulation of the ontological status of the Platonic forms. This reformulation involves relinquishing Plato's attribution of ontological independence to the forms. It puts sensible substances into the seat of ontological primacy by considering them as one and the same with their corresponding forms. Thus, the forms and sensible things, properly understood, do belong to the same class: not as separate entities, but as ontologically the same-only considered in different respects. Forms, then, as understood by Aristotle, remain primary substances insofar as the forms are understood to exist in the sensible objects, and not apart from them; forms, only insofar as they are understood as such and are considered as actuality (and hence, reality) of the sensible objects, are primary ousia. This renders the 'third man' problem dissolved.

Miriam deQuadros White, San Francisco State University
James Baldwin and Richard Wright: Brick by Brick
It is literary lore that James Baldwin and his mentor Richard Wright were estranged about what it meant to be a black writer. What has not been discussed is how Baldwin used his second novel to further their debate through a scenic response to a notorious moment in Wright's Native Son. The two scenes are too similar to be a coincidence, yet too different not to interpret as Baldwin demonstrating the crux of his argument. In Native Son, Bigger Thomas bashes his girl-friend's head with a brick and experiences no emotions. When a character in Baldwin's Gio-vanni's Room wields a brick, realistic emotional subtleties flow. In this moment of tension, the characters come close to violence and the hairs on the back of their neck stand up, but humanity prevails as hatred is diffused with love. Baldwin provides a binary to Wright's vision of vio-lence - it is through love that we find our most fulfilled selves. Baldwin stepped away from race to better examine humanity, but in doing so he expanded rather than diminished the possibilities for African-Americans. Rather than relegating his opinions on the importance of subtle interior-ity to criticism, he put his values into practice in Giovanni's Room.

Kai Draper, University of Delaware
Vagueness in the law: ubiquitous yet ignored
Even beginning students of the law are familiar with hard cases generated by unclear or ambiguous legislation. But it is often assumed that where the plain meaning of the statute is clear, there can be no difficulty applying it to a particular case. This is a mistake that is due to naïve binary thinking. It is assumed that where the meaning of a predicate is clear, it will be clear whether something falls under that predicate or it does not. Sometimes that is true, e.g., a number is either even (divisible by two) or it is not. But most predicates are vague. There may be clear cases of things that fall under the predicate and clear cases of things that do not fall under the predicate, but there are also "borderline cases" where it is a mistake to say that the thing in question falls under the predicate and also a mistake to say that the thing in question does not fall under the predicate. For example, under the war crimes act, whether one is guilty of a war crime can depend on whether one inflicted "prolonged suffering." The problem is that somewhere between the clear cases (e.g., suffering that lasts one second is clearly not prolonged and suffering that lasts 10 years is clearly prolonged), there will be a gray area that is neither prolonged nor not prolonged. If the behavior falls in that gray area, is the defendant a war criminal or not? Legal theorists and legal educators need to pay more attention to this important source of difficulty in applying the law.

Arian Korkuti, Virginia Tech
Question of the dialectic argument in the architecture of Piazza Scanderbeg and Viale dell'Impero in Tirana, Albania
This paper addresses the question of the dialectic argument in the architecture of Piazza Scanderbeg and Viale dell'Impero in Tirana, Albania. Italian architects Armando Brasini and Florestano Di Fausto were commissioned by the Albanian government to design regulatory plans for Tirana. Brasini suggested a Baroque plan in which radiating streets sprung off the center, with the north-south axis acting as the principal artery. Di Fausto's plan preserved the idea of Brasini's north-south axis and foresaw the government buildings erected around the southern portion of Piazza Scanderbeg. Di Fausto worked in Neo-Renaissance fashion, integrating local symbols in the form of decorative elements throughout the government buildings. Gherardo Bosio was appointed to the position of leading the Albanian Central Office of Building and Urban Planning, following the annexation of Albania by Fascist Italy on April 7, 1939. Bosio revised the previous plan of the center of Tirana, and focused mostly on the architecture around the main north-south axis turned Viale dell'Impero, and Piazzale del Littorio at the end of the Viale. This paper with place Bosio's use of a rationalist tone in the buildings he proposed in opposition to the classically oriented buildings of his predecessors.

Steve Surryhne, California State University, San Francisco
Cognitive Mapping and Remapping
In my presentation I will take up the question of binary oppositions as elements of thought and how these are elaborated through, among other things, literature. I will relate this process with reference to the Humanities 214 course I taught at SF State. In this course I presented the notion of "cognitive mapping" as a way of decoding the hierarchies of value embedded in the works under examination. For this purpose I discussed Euripides' Bacchae, Blake's Marriage of Heaven and Hell, and Freud's Beyond the Pleasure Principle. Among the questions explored: are binary oppositions found or made? That is, are they subjective structural elements of the mind, or do they have objective being? Based as they are on contrasts found in the physical world, how do they become coded for hierarchical value? With some (primitive) visual aids, maps and charts, I hoped to increase awareness of these features of thought and perception, enabling students to consider them with some critical distance, and find such analysis helpful in understanding the readings. Through discussions of linguistic structure, metaphor, memes, and Bateson's theory of play, we approached a goal I consider germane to the study of the Humanities: a measure of conscious mastery over otherwise unconscious presuppositions and prejudices.

Samuele Pardini, Elon University
PANEL
The Other Italian Americans Neither black nor white: The Italian American Gangster
The Italian American gangster unveils modernity as the interplay of the development of capitalism and whiteness during the 20th century. This synchronic identification made this trope coterminous of our culture since the early days of the past century, the time when the nascent film industry started depicting the gangster as an Italian man. The century long continuing success of gangster movies and TV shows with an Italian American man as the main character indicates how pervasive this identification is in the American psyche. It signals its ability to navigate between and suture cultures and places, suggesting the accuracy of what Giorgio Bertellini calls the Italian American gangster's "semantic plurality [that] is absent from the binary dynamics of whiteness." My presentation will examine the Godfather trope as the prime example of the Italian American gangster as the ideal tool for a better understanding of the spectrum of the racial discourse and 20th century modernity.

William Folkestad, California State University-Pueblo
What the Artist Saw: Degas's The Tub (1886)
Degas's The Tub (1886) uses the kind of flattened space we associate with Cézanne at the end of the nineteenth century or even with works by early twentieth-century French Synthetic Cubists. Viewers are 'placed' above the bather. The traditional vanishing point characteristic of western art since at least the mid-fifteenth century is not a part of this picture. Viewers look down and into the scene as if one were the proverbial "fly on the wall." Because of the viewpoint forced on us by the artist, objects such as the marble-topped dresser and the toiletries it supports take on a grandeur that is wholly at odds with the tub. Degas flattens the space in this pastel to such a degree that a contest of scale is generated between the bather and accompanying objects. This paper proposes to investigate how Degas may have approached the creation of The Tub. This will be accomplished by examining how The Tub visually differs from works with a similar subject and by reconstructing the space and the objects used to compose this innovative composition. Additionally, it will be suggested what devices Degas would have required to create this image and how he would have positioned himself in relation to his model in order to see precisely what is represented in the final picture.

Henry Sayre, Oregon State University-Cascades
"The World Won't Listen": Cultural Identity and the Globalization of Music Video
In early 2004, the Scottish artist Phil Collins (not to be confused, in this context, with the recording star of the same name) was visiting Bogotá, Colombia, when he got the idea of making a series of videotapes of the city's residents performing karaoke to the 1986 album The World Won't Listen by the Irish band The Smiths. The astonishing thing is that in 2004, in Bogotá, Colombia, a karaoke video of a 1986 English album could attract hundreds of young performers, most of them not even old enough to remember its original release-and then, subsequently, do the same in 2005 in Istanbul, Turkey, and then again, in 2007, in Jakarta and Bandung, Indonesia. "In all of the locations," Collins reports, "some people had a very rudimentary grasp of English. But they knew the songs so devastatingly well through repetition, every breath and every ad lib, which, considering the importance of the lyrics in the songs, their arch and archaic constructions, as well as the prelinguistic wail at the heart of them, is pretty amazing." The World Won't Listen seemed to have struck some universal chord, as if, indeed, the whole world were listening. Does this phenomenon merely reflect the globalization of teenage angst, or does it reflect a global flattening of difference, binary and otherwise?

John Berners, University of Indianapolis
When words and music are one
In creating traditional vocal music, there is a division of labor separating the disciplines of words and of music. Opera has its librettists, and art song typically starts with an existing poem. The music comes later, written by a composer who, like the wordsmiths, works alone. This conceptual division is upheld throughout a work's existence, to the point where words and music can be ultimately re-separated, for example, when the vocal melodies of a successful opera are later extracted and played on instruments. Stripped of the words, the music retains its identity.
           But in some works, these two elements are synthesized so that they can't be separated. In fact, a theory of the earliest music proposes that the original music was vocal chanting-the music was the words. And it is well-known that poets dating back to the classical Greeks are acutely concerned with the musical sound of their verse. While in the world of concert music the two elements have become separated over the centuries, a powerful synthesis exists once again in some modern musical works. Examples are unaccompanied vocal works by Kurt Schwitters (1887-1948), Georges Aperghis (b. 1945) and Mauricio Kagel (1931-2008), where the binary opposition of the poet's and composer's discipline does not exist; where the lines between speech/song and words/music are blurred. In their art, musical material is phonemes and syllables, and the text is the abstract interplay of sounds; sounds that prove to be inseparable from human expression, so that a rich network of almost-understood meanings, implications and ambiguities is created. In this presentation, composer John Berners explores the synthesis of words and music with examples from the above composers, and his own work, which draws inspiration from this rediscovered synthesis.

Yi-Chuang Lin, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan
Arriving at Shantih: Healing the Rift in T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land
"In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth," "separated light from darkness," land from sea, and good from evil. In a word, Genesis provides us with the primal binary opposition that structuralized the initial chaos. Binary opposition, just as the Structuralists of the past century have shown, still serves as the bedrock for the existing socio-cultural and even scientific order that one believes to be the reality and what generates truth. Nonetheless, as the allegory of the cave alludes to, such reality might simply be a self-deceptive illusion, shadow of a dream, that humanity cannot easily forgo for the superficial comfort and relief it supplies.
           Circulating around the allusion of the legend of Fisher King and his sterile land, Eliot's The Waste Land spins out an elaborate web through its layers of interwoven Western cultural references to question the validity of one's current conceptual framework. While balancing between the unresolvable paradoxes of life, the poem actually invokes a possible liberation from the very prison of the signifying chain which ironically is sustained by one's very attempt to overpower the chaos. In the very words of Eliot: "Thinking of the key, each confirms a prison." Therefore, with its difficult languages and multiple tongues, The Waste Land is working towards an inviolable voice of nature, bespeaking some kind of absolute wisdom that situated beyond the present cognitive context of human built out of binary opposition. The Waste Land can be redeemed but its redemption is only possible through an almost maddening and self-destructive process of disclaiming the existing order that supplies a self and defines a world.

Grant Williams, St. Thomas University
Let's Kinulate That!: Understanding Science Concepts through Active Participation in Kinesthetic Simulations
Research on the use of computer-based simulations indicates that students can develop deep conceptual understanding of abstract science concepts as a result of passively interacting with visual representations of phenomena that may be difficult to experience first-hand. Research on movement education also tells us that students can develop deep and lasting conceptual understanding as a result of participating in kinesthetic activity while learning new concepts. This workshop introduces participants to a pedagogical approach the author/facilitator refers to as Kinulations (Kinesthetic Simulations) which combines these two seemingly opposite (passive vs. active learning) approaches by engaging learners in imagining, acting, dancing and moving their way through self-constructed human-sized simulations of natural phenomena such as planetary motion, human circulation, chemical reactions, circuit electricity, etc. Based on the tenets of embodied cognition and social constructivism, this teaching approach draws on learners' innate capacity to imaginatively project from certain well-structured aspects of bodily and interactional experience to abstract structures. Attendees of the workshop will first examine the theoretical frameworks of: a) simulation-based teaching and learning and, b) kinesthetic-based teaching and learning, and then move on to explore a combination of these in the creation and enactment of a variety of Kinulations activities.

Eric Lapin, Clemson University
Beyond the Binary Performing Arts: Rethinking Higher Education Music Programs
Bachelor of Music degree programs in higher education have traditionally focused on tracked programs of Education or Performance. However, the narrow focus of this traditional binary system has produced a wide range of limitations. Among others, issues of a lack of preparedness and teacher training, an over-emphasis on Western musical styles, too much focus on large ensemble playing, and a shrinking and fiercely competitive job market plague both of the traditional music tracks. This system ultimately limits the options of graduates, drives musicians away from a career in music, and frightens off potential future students. In response, higher education Performing Arts music programs seek to provide students with a more comprehensive range of music and arts skills. While performance and music education are a part of these higher education Performing Arts style programs, the curricula also features courses such as marketing, entrepreneurship, audio technology and recording, pop music, production, and grant writing. By getting beyond the binary Education and Performance paradigm that exists throughout much of music in higher education, Performing Arts programs are attempting to provide their graduates with a wider range of musical skills to better equip them for lives in music and the arts.

Brently Johnson, Pacific University
A Classroom without Borders
George Bernard Shaw is attributed with saying that America and Britain are two countries separated by a common language. This session will report on a fellowship funded course titled "US-Brit Cyber Exchange," in which a classroom of students from Pacific University shared texts, opinions, and reactions with students from York St. John University in York, England, via interactive tools of the internet. The course, being literature based, encouraged students from both sides of the Atlantic to ask, "How do I understand literary texts, as well as the text of myself, from a global point of view?" Because we are often unaware of the cultural assumptions we bring to a text, the purpose of this session is to consider how a technologically enhanced classroom can tease out those assumptions, making students more aware of binary narratives that simplify identity into an "us versus them" schema. Through chat rooms, Google Hangouts, and online discussion forums, how might a cross-cultural blended course begin to construct a fuller, more complex sense of self that acknowledges borders without being restricted by them?

Alice Price,Temple University, Tyler School of Art
The Female Nude and the Woman Artist: The Expressive Symbolist Womb
Women's visual representations of the womb between 1880 and 1914 fundamentally challenge the predominant trajectory of European modernist male discourse about health, sex, and gender as variables in creativity. Female nudes by Anna Ancher (1859-1935) and Camille Claudel (1864-1937) raise the issue of how nineteenth-century women might reclaim their bodies through their art. Ancher and Claudel were part of a dramatic increase in the number of successful professional women artists. Yet concurrent to their careers, medical, political and social debates inserted female bodies, specifically wombs and uteri, into the public domain through published diagrams, photographs and caricatures. Their torsos, breasts and abdomens became central to the reductive binary of femme fragile or femme fatale. Sigmund Freud's articles in the 1890s revived attention to hysteria with women's bodies as central to that pathology. Additionally, illustrated gynecological manuals instructed male practitioners on proper pelvic examinations, while crises of declining birthrates, anxiety over prostitution and fears over an increase in abortion and infanticide, likewise inserted women's bodies into public domain. Caricatures of the "new woman" raised the specter and imagery of infertility and unnaturally empty wombs. Nudes by Ancher and Claudel are responsive, whether overtly or subconsciously, to such constructions of the feminine.

Nicholas Faraclas, Pier Angeli LeCompte Zambrana, Lourdes Gonzalez, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras
Beyond Binaries in the study of the emergence of creolized languages and societies in the Afro-Atlantic

Those who study the creolized languages and societies of the Afro-Atlantic often do so without questioning many of the binaries that frame the dominant discourses of patriarchy (culture/nature), ethnocentricity (white/black) and imperialism (developed/undeveloped). In this presentation, we critically compare assumptions that underpin current debates among linguists over the emergence of creole languages with assumptions that underlie recent debates among historians over the emergence of racialized slavery, in order to reveal binary constructs that render both of limited utility in deepening our understanding of the Afro-Atlantic. Such binary thinking leads theorists on all sides of both controversies to advance simplistic, mono-causal explanations for highly complex phenomena, while ignoring important aspects of the socio-political, cultural and economic matrices which gave rise to the Afro-Atlantic world. We argue that the net result has been to silence the voices of marginalized peoples and to render invisible their considerable agency in forging the languages, cultures, and histories of the colonial era. Finally, we use linguistic and socio-historical evidence to demonstrate how, once these tendencies are abandoned, fresh perspectives and possibilities open up for moving us beyond these stagnant debates.

Herman Haluza, San Francisco State University
Ancient Paths/Modern Journeys
In looking at our beginnings of civilization we can see traces of truth; to ignore our beginnings is to erase such traces. The truth can never be seen in full; we just get glimpses of the trace. In a way, Simone de Beauvoir reflects this concept of beginning while quoting the 17th century Descartes: "Man's unhappiness, says Descartes, is due to his having first been a child." In this presentation, antiquity is the child manifesting the traces that continue to shape us all. Our present society, in its immediacy, is a system of detachment of the past as compared to a once attachment to the (ideal of) antiquity. As said by Eduardo Galeano: "If the past has nothing to say to the present, history may go on sleeping undisturbed in the closet where the system keeps it old disguises."
           Of late, contemporary vision has put aside the logos [and maybe even unhappiness] in the name of icons and digitalism resulting in a change of consciousness and awareness. Much of western classical vision in Europe was lost, as well as destroyed, during the early Middle Ages but again found in the ancient translations of the Moors and other discoveries, which helped create the Renaissance, putting forth a vision that continued in a canonical way up until recent times. We cannot say the same with regard to Africa, Meso America, and the world of the Incas in that so much was destroyed; yet traces linger. Here we can now ask if we are on a destructive path in that we are putting the classics aside, or rather, the thought of the ancient world, the binary of the past to the present.
           So few of us have awareness of the historical lineage of art, music, literature, and philosophy, yet to open our eyes it is ever-present. More, so few of educators, themselves, express the spirit of the classics, unless they are in elite schools. One can still get a classical education, but they so often have to go against the curriculum, especially in public institutions. This presentation will not be mourning of which is no more but rather an inquiry into a debacle, looking at the classical vision with regard to our contemporary vision. Our contemporary vision seems to discard the classics, yet we cannot escape antiquity. We will come to some kind of notion as to what the classics are and what is meant by contemporary vision.

Lisette Davies Ward, Claremont Graduate University
The ‘Grey Areas’: Beyond Binary Oppositions of Stereotypical Gender Roles in The Bachelorette
Many media critics argue that love-themed reality shows are nothing more than the modern way of myth telling, with tales that perpetuate stereotypical, therefore negative gender roles as portrayed within America’s cultural myth of romantic love. This oppositional thinking presents an inescapable framework of incomplete understanding for shows within a genre that has exploded across the television landscape to unprecedented heights since the second millennium, like no other genre in television history. The fact is, love-themed reality shows’ popularity could be attributed to the vast portrayal of multiple types of gender roles that serve to defy the oppositional thinking or dominant ideological, feminist discourse about these texts. Furthermore, the vast variety of gender roles portrayed allow viewers to draw multiple meanings from these texts about the cultural myth of love upon which they are arguably premised.
           By citing specific examples from episodes of The Bachelorette this paper will illustrate that alternative gender roles are portrayed throughout its Cinderella mythic love-themed narrative, which runs contrary to the prevailing criticism that focuses exclusively on traditional gender roles associated with this myth. Additionally, specific examples of viewers’ discourse (e.g. online show message boards, blogs and industry article commentary) will exemplify that some viewers do indeed question, challenge and subvert stereotypical portrayals of genders associated with the cultural myth they access. Thus, my paper seeks to prove that love-themed reality shows are multivalent texts, and offer viewers multiple and diverse meaning-making possibilities about each gender’s role within America’s myth of love. To conclude, it is important that these nuances or ‘grey areas’ about gender roles are recognized, to help address the current problem of ‘oppositional’ criticism, so a truer reading of America’s cultural moment can be reached, not least an evident re-shaping of America’s traditional myth of love that has existed for centuries.

Richard Hanley, University of Delaware
Blurred Lines: Fox News/faux news, fiction/nonfiction, and Poe's Law
Tom Rosenstiel writes: "The line between fact and fiction in America, between what is real and made up, is blurring. The move in journalism toward infotainment invites just such confusion, as news becomes entertainment and entertainment becomes news."
           What is the "confusion" Rosensteil posits? Is it epistemic? One common problem is that people often take parody to be the real thing. Think The Colbert Report, The Onion, The Yes Men (e.g. #Shellfail). Scott Aiken interprets Poe's Law of internet communication as epistemic: "unless there are unmistakable cues that one is being ironic or sarcastic, many parodies are not only likely to be interpreted as earnest contributions, they will, in fact, be identical in content to sincere expressions of the view." The Yes Men's 2012 #Shellfail campaign was an intended parody that many took to be real, and then some commentators claimed was in fact lying.
           This presentation will compare the parody/nonparody binary by comparison with entertainment/news, fiction/fact, and fiction/nonfiction binaries. I shall argue that epistemic blurring is real, but Poe, Aiken and others have not noticed the metaphysical question it raises: what makes the work in question a parody rather than not? Are some works neither? Or both?

Peter Sutherland, Louisiana State University
Edouard Duval Carrie and the Triangular Countertrade in Art
A remarkable incident in the reception of world-artist Edouard Duval Carrié's work complicates the opposition between modernity and tradition: the misrecognition of his modern art sculptures by the Supreme Chief of Vodun in Benin as instruments of sorcery in 1993 and their repatriation as traditional Vodun fetishes. To understand this miscommunication between Africa and its diaspora, I trace the hundred-year circulation of African religious imagery that defines an alternative to the triangular geography of the slave trade. Moving counterclockwise from Africa, via Europe to the Americas since the 1890s, the flow of African religious imagery defines a triangular countertrade in art shaped by moments of re-signification: 1) the collection of Dogon masks from Mali by the Ethnographic Museum in Paris; 2) the proto-Cubist painting by Picasso they inspired, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon; 3) the Indigenist painting The Jungle by Wifredo Lam in Cuba influenced by his friendship with Picasso and Breton; 4) the founding of the Haitian Naïve School of Art, and 5) the contemporary work of Haitian diasporic artist, Edouard Duval Carrie. Rather than the opposition of modern art and traditional fetishes, this historical view of transatlantic circulation reveals a sequenced recontextualization of African aesthetics structured by incremental change.

Mary Beth Looney, Brenau University
The Number of Roads Now Open": Decision-Mapping and the Gamification of American Art
History for the College Classroom. The Reacting to the Past pedagogy now practiced in over 350 colleges and universities involves the use of intricate role-playing games situated in various historical moments of great change. Competing ideologies clash among two to four factions engaged in the reading of primary texts, the writing and delivery of speeches, the enterprise of debate and other activities. Faculty implementing this pedagogy operate as both curators of an educational experience and as gamemasters, enabling student players to run the game. As the pedagogy grows in popularity, so too does the creation of new games. To complement a small number of art-related games is the in-progress creation of one about the American Artists' Congress of 1935-1939. Founded to enlist artists in the cause of fighting Facism from the home front, the Congress welcomed artists of all types. The group's concerns ranged from New Deal mural work to American art's purpose and direction. The framework of a consciously heterogenous group of Regionalist, Plastic Modernist, and purely Abstract artists mixed with young indeterminate artists (who later become the Abstract Expressionists of the 1950s) forced to tackle political, social and creative issues of their day offers an extraordinarily wide variety of decision-making and learning opportunities.

Robert Hauhart, Saint Martin's University
The Ideal Capstone Course
Undergraduate capstone or senior culminating courses are required by 2/3 - 3/4 of all four year colleges and universities in the United States. As such, they are a critical part of higher education. Yet only in recent years has there been an appreciable effort to develop a capstone pedagogy. Based on six years of research, I will summarized the features found in the literature to constitute an "ideal capstone course". The presentation will address: what makes capstone courses valuable for graduating students; the structural features that make a capstone course effective; comparison between existing programs, both within academic disciplines and across institutions; pedagogical techniques that increase the course's success; and examine discipline-specific considerations for capstone course design.

Laura Ruberto, Berkeley City College
Johnny Staccato and the Multiple Edges of Italian Ethnicity in 1950s Television
This paper considers the NBC crime/action program, Johnny Staccato and how it depicts Italian ethnicity in a rather coded way, constructing white ethnicity on the edges of other identities. In 1959 NBC premiered Johnny Staccato, starring then unknown-director John Cassavetes as a private investigator and jazz pianist who worked out of a Greenwich Village club, lasted but one season. The character of Staccato was later spoofed by SCTV into the character of Vic Arpeggio but otherwise the show has remained only known among cult-audiences and Cassavetes aficionados. The show's formal elements borrowed from film noir and gangster genres: from the use of venetian blinds to create shadowed lighting to the reliance on voice-over narrations it created a cinema-like sense of urban, cool and living on the edge of crime. It assumed an audience well-versed in American popular cinema, relying on jazz and Beat culture generally to construct a hip sensibility with an Italian ethnicity placed on the edges of that identity. Johnny Staccato less-visible kind of ethnic narrative navigated a changing notion of white ethnicity in the later part of the 20th century, playing into deep-rooted ethnic stereotypes and place-specific identities regarding differentiated representations of Italian American ethnicity.

Michael Golden, Soka University of America, Research Fellow, Min-On Music Research Institute
The Music In and Of Ecology
A survey of ethnomusicological studies of cultures from around the world shows us that, although the specific functions attributed to music are diverse, a common thread is that they involve connecting us to our environments: social, physical, and/or metaphysical. If we consider this phenomenon in the context of developing work in ecology, systems science, philosophy and neurobiology, human musical activities can be understood as continuing the development of essential processes common to all living things in their interactions with their environments, in other words, as an emergent property of the ecosystem of life on earth.
           The perspective of the Santiago theory of cognition and its successors is particularly useful in exploring this understanding. This theory places human cognitive processes in a continuum with those of all organisms, and explains that, with a sufficiently complex nervous system, organisms such as ourselves "bring forth" an interior world, and then integrate or connect it with the external world that we also bring forth through our senses.
           In summary, music itself is an activity that transcends binary division (between life and environment) and examining it in this way can transcend traditional divisions between art and science, or culture and biology.

Cathal Doherty, Boston College
Absolution & Confession: A Sacramental Hermeneutic for Forgiveness
This paper proposes a 'sacramental' hermeneutic for understanding the phenomenon of forgiveness from a multidisciplinary perspective: i.e. the Christian sacrament of penance (colloquially, "confession") serves as a key to understanding the interaction and interdependence of the discrete elements of the human act of forgiveness, even in the secular sphere. Secular forgiveness too is worked out in a binary and dialogical interaction of 'confession' and 'absolution', typically but not necessarily verbal. Yet forgiveness, both secular and sacred, is asymmetric inasmuch as 'absolution', understood as the externalization of forgiveness in a signifying and concrete act, is absolutely necessary: without it, forgiveness, secular or sacred, is not effected and remains merely potential. Unless forgiveness is expressed in absolution, it is not effected. Based on Maurice Blondel's phenomenology of voluntary human action, this exigency for 'absolution' follows from the necessity ('pace' Kantian formalism) of realizing human freedom in a particular object of the will. It follows that the only real guaranty of an intention is execution. The human action of forgiveness, therefore, as a particular and free conversion of the will, entails passing to concrete, signifying action. The free choice to forgive, therefore, is realized in concrete 'absolution', usually but not necessarily verbal.

Solmaz Mohammadzadeh Kive, University of Colorado
Lessons from the Museum: Towards a De-Canonized Pedagogy
The traditional history as well as the surveys of world art and architecture, both in publications and in educational institutions, has been grounded in a Eurocentric narrative applied with much liberty to non-Western traditions. In this framework non-Western traditions have been not only marginalized but also rendered as timeless stereotypes frozen in their past, as opposed to the Western cultures whose geographical variations and temporal development are appreciated. This Eurocentric approach has been criticized for decades, especially in the current century. Some survey books have employed different strategies for challenging this dominant discourse in the historiography. However, the current narrative-based pedagogical practice seems to have little response beyond the theoretical level.
           The museum, as a modern institution, was formed at the late eighteenth century when history had been developed and art history was under formulation. The museum discourse has encountered similar criticisms, mainly based on post-colonial theories. Though constrained by the expectations of the public, many museums have introduced various strategies to challenge this predominant narrative. The Western-non-Western dichotomy, which had governed the museum exhibition since its very beginning, has been questioned by various strategies such as prioritizing cross-cultural, thematic arrangement over regional classification. These strategies of resistance are grounded in a more general change, replacing the authoritative voice of the curator by multiplicity of directed interpretations. Digital technology has played an important role in the implementation of the new approach, as is particularly evident in the new phenomenon of the virtual museum. Using the example of the art museum, I will discuss what I see as the practical potentials of the digital technology for overcoming the limits of the traditional methods of teaching history and world art and architecture, which have more easily lent themselves to the Eurocentric narrative.

Phoebe Reeves, Gregory Loving, University of Cincinnati, Clermont College
No Damn Cat, and No Damn Cradle: A Dialogue on the Moral Neutrality of Environmental Devastation
Environmentalists have long criticized the binary philosophy that divorces conquering humanity from benign nature, instead postulating humanity as part of nature. In this view, nature is not a resource to be dominated and utilized, but a partner worthy of respect and cooperation. Assuming a qualitative difference between humanity and nature, however, does assume the distinction between nature as amoral and humanity as moral, allowing moral responsibility for human treatment of the environment. If categories are collapsed and humanity seen as part of nature, as environmentalism advocates, is it appropriate to call human activity "unnatural?" Does environmental devastation wrought by humanity then share the amorality of that wrought by any other natural force? This performative dialogue will take as its jumping off point Kurt Vonnegut's Cat's Cradle, which portrays humanity's potential for environmental devastation. One side will argue that this devastation has no moral content, but that humans have every right to argue for the world they want based on will alone. The other side will argue that foundational moral arguments in environmental issues are more necessary now than ever if humanity is to pass along a world to future generations which holds the possibility of living in harmony with nature.

Teresa Henriques, New University of Lisbon and Tomas Cabreira High School
Beyond Binary Identities: Intersectionality and Performance in Teacher' Training
This presentation focuses on the methods and results of a research project on teachers' training conducted in Portugal in 2012-2013. The main objectives of this project are twofold: on the one hand, it seeks to analyze, from an intersectional perspective, the representations of gender, sexual orientation and racial identities in the discourses of secondary teachers in Portugal; on the other hand, it aims to propose an alternative model for teachers' training to promote non-discriminatory educational practices. Drawing on a series of workshops and interviews with high school teachers, I discuss how an intersectional approach to teachers' training contributes to understanding social inequalities beyond binary categories such as male/female, black/white, and gay/straight. In order to better identify and discuss teachers' discourses, the research methodology makes use of performance drawing primarily on the techniques of Augusto Boal's Theater of the Oppressed, particularly "Image Theater". An intersectional approach to teachers' discourses, in turn, sheds light on images of both oppression and privileges associated with teachers' and their students' social positions within the context of a society marked by hierarchies based on gender, race, and sexual orientation.

Yi-Ling Chiang, National Taiwan University of Sport
An Aesthetic Analysis of Taiwanese Ta'si Ch'a Dance
This research primarily applied Janet Adshead-Lansdale dance aesthetic theory to describe and explain the evolution of Hakka Ta'si Ch'a Dance. The impact of globalization on ethnic minorities performing arts heritage were testified through the analysis of similarities and differences between traditional and contemporary choreographic design on Ta'si Ch'a dance. Based on archival materials, subject matter, characteristic, movement quality and meaning were investigated through data analysis and in depth interviews. We found that: 1) the traditional and modern Ta'si Ch'a Dance were coexisted on the same platfrom in terms of Hakka culture identities and emotional resonance, 2) both daily action movements and elaborated choreographic movements of Ta'si Ch'a Dance reflected Hakka tea farmers' lives, 3) Ta'si Ch'a dance elegantly leaping beyond the dualism framework of generation conflict. And both traditional and contemporary styles are holding the same Hakka spirit . This study may contribute as an academic reference for further research on Taiwanese Hakka Ta'si Ch'a Dance. Key Words: Dance Aesthetic, Hakka Culture, Dualism

Teresa N. R. Gonçalves, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Beyond Binaries in Educational Research: Some 'Lines of Flight'
Educational research has been characterized by the classical oppositions between objectivity/subjectivity, qualitative/quantitative, disciplinary/interdisciplinary, theory/practice. Although common to other fields of the social sciences and the humanities, the nature of education and the different traditions in theorizing education, make that the prevailing binaries within educational research have specificities that need to be addressed in order to envision new ways to deal with the existing tensions. I will revisit three questions: a)'What is educational research?', related with the definition and construction of the research field; b) 'What is it for?', concerning the need, relevance of this particular research field; c) 'How to do research in education?' addressing the theories, methodologies, procedures and criteria for developing educational research. Throughout a critical analysis of these three questions I will argue for the need to question the classical oppositions referred above, by exploring some emergent methodological/experiential approaches to educational research that have been recently addressed under the general designation of 'post-qualitative research'. I will illustrate my arguments by briefly describe recent research I've been participating in, within the field of teacher education, as exemplifying possible interruptions of the existing dichotomies and allowing to turn to what becomes possible as 'lines of flight'.

Chelsea Rushton, University of Calgary
Motherland: Life/Death/Life
Motherland, a 66" x 66" square hand embroidery that I am completing as part of my MFA thesis in Visual Art, contests the life/death binary that limits one of the most fundamental facets of human experience. Its metaphysical landscape, divided neatly in half, illustrates black/white, night/day, underground/cosmos, male/female, matter/spirit. A human skeleton decomposes in a womb-shaped grave. The dead matter transforms into a vital force that connects the processes occurring within the earth to the cosmic reality. Rather than seeking to abolish oppositional forces, Motherland positions them into a cycle in which each continually necessitates the other. Motherland will be completed in May 2015, after approximately 18 months of contemplative, meditative labour. I am keeping journals in order to document my creative progress, and the processes of emotional and spiritual transformation that the project is motivating in me as I work on it. I propose to read excerpts from these journals to offer an alternative view of the relationship between life and death, and to call attention to the small, often unacknowledged deaths and rebirths that occur throughout human life as landmarks in the processes of physical, emotional, and spiritual growth and evolution.

Evelyn Ferraro, Santa Clara University
American Stories: Ebe Cagli's Exile Literature
This paper explores what it means to fashion an Italian American identity as a consequence of the Italian/Jewish opposition put into effect with the Fascist racial laws of 1938. To this aim, I will consider some of the literary works of Ebe Cagli Seidenberg, who left Rome for the United States after the approval of the racial laws. There she continued her studies and later started writing the Ciclo dell'esilio obbligato (1975-1991), with the primary objective to bear witness to the difficulty for refugees and uprooted people to forge a sense of home and normalcy in the host country. The topos of the search for a better life is intrinsic to migrant cultures and a remarkable aspect of the Italian American diaspora. As an Italian Jewish woman victim of racial discrimination in her own motherland, however, Cagli follows a distinctive personal and artistic journey with respect to fashioning a safe place abroad. In this paper, I argue that Cagli's visual and literary modes of representation can be analyzed as two crucial forms that reflect displacement and fracture as well as determination to denounce racial discrimination, and envision transnational life beyond binaries.

Rebecca Fairbank, Independent Scholar
Shattering the Glass Slipper: Kinship and Gender Binary Disruptions in Cinderella
In a recent lecture at Brown University, Judith Butler stated that traditional concepts of kinship depend on gender binaries perpetuated in social heteronormativity. Charles Perrault's Cendrillon reveals a heavy dependence on accepted kinship and gender norms to assert its moral authority. Simply stated, Cendrillon promotes familial duty and adherence to social norms. While scholars have identified and analyzed various aspects of the Cinderella text, including the problem of Cinderella's subjection to patriarchy, none have considered how operatic adaptations of Cinderella challenge Perrault's kinship and gender binary constructions.
           This paper will analyze three variations across Perrault's text, Rossini's La Cenerentola, and Pauline Viardot-Garcia's Cendrillon: the gender of the stepparent, the role of a meta-fairytale device, and the gender and role of the godparent. Variations on Perrault in Cenerentola reinforce the moralizing of Perrault's tale. The opera, however, questions the authenticity of standard kin relationships at work in the text, a significant undermining of Perrault's simplistic promotion of heteronormativity. Building on the Perrault analysis and comparison with Rossini's opera provides important insight to the subtextual workings of a woman-authored Cinderella text. Pauline Viardot-Garcia's operetta Cendrillon allows for significant disruption and accommodates a permanent reordering of heteronormativity, thereby undermining traditional social binaries.

Sandy Litchfield, University of Massachusetts Amherst
Bound to Fail: The Dialectic Synthesis of Success and Failure in Foundation Design Studio
Each year freshman students come to liberal arts colleges ready to succeed, ready to follow the well worn paths to knowledge and ready to achieve, but rarely are they ready to fail. In fact the fear of failure can be so paralyzing that it can keep students from even making a dedicated attempt. Some would rather withdraw from a class altogether than face the humility of defeat. Resistance to failure is a natural component of healthy behavior, but in its extreme condition it keeps students from learning what is perhaps the most valuable of all lessons- resilience. And for the creative disciplines, which value divergent thinking, a certain amount of risk taking is an essential part of the practice.
           This presentation will explore some of the ways that architecture and design educators can make room for experimentation and failure in the classroom. It will give examples of course assignments, exercises and discussions that valorize trial-and-error, insight, perseverance and revision. Finally, it will look at the problem solving strategies of renown contemporary artists and architects. Famous innovators, like Frank Ghery, Zaha Hadid, Bruce Nauman and Agnes Martin, reveal the importance of this dialectic synthesis in these creative fields.

James Bell, Grand Valley State University
Cheating History: Performing Period or Period Plays
The Theatre season at GVSU always begins with a Shakespeare production and concludes with a production that rotates such that over a potential student's four years of study productions will be from a range of periods and styles. In selecting productions for the 2014-15 season, the faculty decided to search for a restoration period play. The director for the production recommended contemporary playwright Amy Freed's play Restoration Comedy, which is an adaptation of two restoration plays, Love's Last Shift and The Relapse. I argued that the play was in fact a contemporary play that "played" in period rather than an actual restoration period play, something more akin to performing West Side Story for our Shakespeare Festival than Romeo and Juliet. Nevertheless, Restoration Comedy will be performed in April, 2015. I have been teaching a Restoration Comedy dramaturgy class as contextual research support for the production. For this paper, I will examine differences between contemporary performances of period plays and contemporary plays set in a period using this production as a case study. The question here is pedagogical in that period plays and styles for production are part of a larger mission to educate theatre students about theatre art and production.

Monette Bebow-Reinhard, Independent Scholar
Dance and Homophobia: Moving in the right direction?
This presentation is an investigation into boys' participation with dance in school settings, both on the curriculum and as extra-curricular activities. The project initially involved several schools from the North West of England and the research focuses on two schools. The work demonstrates how the discipline of dance has never been able to escape its feminised stereotype within schools. The work raises important questions relating to a range of cultural, gender and sexual assumptions alongside issues associated with homophobia, well-being and empowerment. For many boys who do engage with dance, there can be social consequences as they effectively position themselves in opposition to hegemonic masculinities. Interwoven throughout this research is a reflexive turn to self, through an auto-ethnographic account were the researcher shares his experience as a male dancer and dance educator. The writings explore his own personal history, from his my working class roots and a desire to dance to his role as a university lecturer in Dance, Drama and Performance.

Daniel Ciba,Tufts University
The same closet: The performance of gay identity inside the Rainbow Nation
In 1996, South Africa passed an anti-discrimination law as part of its constitution, which includes protection for homosexuals. However, the balance between tolerance and victimization is still a contested site of homosexual identity for South Africans, shown by the outpouring of gay and lesbian performances since the constitution passed. My presentation will focus on the performance of gay identity in two plays, both written by South Africans who use memory to explore the gay identity of their characters. My Loving Simon, devised by Robert Colman, enacts the time that gay activist Simon Nkoli spent in prison, by remembering his identity through direct quotations from letters he wrote to his white lover. Juliet Jenkin's The Boy who Fell from the Roof is a fictional examination of the death of a white teenager and the repercussions of his relationship with a coloured mathematician on his friends and family. The use of memory in these plays reveal insights into how culture impacts the creation of gay identity, specifically for South Africans as both a local and global phenomenon.

Shannon Goldman, California State University, Fullerton
The Trees Know My Name: Breaking the Binary of the Sacred and the Demonic in Blackwood's "The Man Whom the Trees Loved"

In the early 1900s, Algernon Blackwood, today an out of print and nearly forgotten author, wove together mysticism and folklore from many cultures to create a supernatural novella titled The Man Whom the Trees Loved. In the story, Blackwood paints a picture of the forest as a place to be feared. He uses cultural and religious allusions to ground his argument of the dangers, as well as the sanctity, of the forests. Through the account of his characters understanding of and experiences with nature, he creates his own nature myth. Traditional folklore surrounding India's forests serves as the foundation for the main character's unnatural connection to trees. Adding to the forest lore is the Druidic appearance of a personified forest and the appearance of two cedars, reminiscent of those in the Epic of Gilgamesh. Even though Blackwood creates a story based around the fear of the forest, via the main character's wife, it is ultimately a proto-environmentalist novella. Through the interweaving of folklore and religion, as well as scientific knowledge, Blackwood reveals the public's fear of the forests and other savage lands, yet demonstrates the intrinsic knowledge that nature contains, ultimately making it a sacred place to be revered.

Samira Brahimi, L'École Préparatoire en Sciences Économiques, Commerciales et Sciences de Gestion d'Oran (EPSECG) Algeria
"I Think of You": Transcending the Binary Trap
Ahdaf Soueif, an Egyptian activist and fiction writer, has long fought to eradicate the very binary nature of concepts, mainly the age old opposition featuring male and female entities. In I Think of You, a short story chosen from her second collection The Sandpiper (1996), Soueif transcends, deconstructs and redefines the binary through her utilization of memory as she allows her protagonist to tell two tales; her own and her late friend's. Soueif's unnamed protagonist thinks about and remembers her ill then dead friend while she is alone in a hospital waiting to give birth to her baby. The very protagonist travels beyond time and space via her memory to paint portraits of herself and her friend's as suffering and resilient women. In I Think of You the writer represents memory as the stage whereby myriad stories take place and as the therapeutic track her protagonist follows to hold on to life, to transcend space and time and to re-imagine herself, and women in general, as powerful and courageous . This very journey allows the demystification of the woman's portrait as weak, male dependent, maudlin, and nostalgic, opposing it to the man's portrait as strong, independent, and courageous.
           This research work aims at answering an important query that is: How does Soueif allow memory to conjure up spiraling and intermingling tales and portraits of two female characters, deconstructing and transcending space and time, redefining age old serotypes and transcending the binary? Soueif could transgress the binary revealing counter portraits of her female characters.

Wendy Grosskopf, University of Rhode Island
Beyond the Binary: Redirecting Argumentation Pedagogy from a "Win/Lose" to a "Three Uses" Emphasis

Because every single ideology, legal system, and personal code of ethics that exist in our human world is built over and supported by frames constructed of arguments, it is no wonder why the ability to argue well is considered to be one of the most important skills a student will learn in college. However, most pedagogical efforts are stymied because of the un-critical, under-theorized common assumption that argumentation is a set win-lose binary. This paper’s author critiques said debilitating practices for two main reasons: 1) the win-lose binary is not especially helpful in advancing critical thinking skills in student populations, largely because it overlooks argument’s possibility as a process of exploration and discovery A La Keats’s Negative Capability concept; 2) the win-lose binary strategy does not account for other types of and reasons for engaging in arguments. The author concludes by offering for classroom adaption meant to rectify these two major concerns, which is to teach argument according to her three-use taxonomy: 1) academic/professional; 2) advocacy; 3) exploration.

Nancy Salay, Queen's University, Canada
From Contrasts to Continuums: Two Sides of the Same Coin
Either/Or thinking seems inevitable. No sooner have we abandoned it in favour of another model - continuums, triads, webs - than we are confronted once again with its stark contrasts: either colours have clear boundary conditions or they are best understood in terms of spectrums; either concepts are meaningful individually or they get their meaning from the role they play in a web of concepts; either there are universal moral principles or there are gradations of better and worse ways to act in an infinity of particular situations. Thus, while we are becoming aware of the subtle complexities in our domain of study, we are, at the same time, creating new contrast classes.
           There is a clear cognitive payoff of this activity: by crystallizing an entire varied domain into a unit, we do this when we apply a label to a class, for example, we are now able to think about a given domain as a whole and in comparison or contrast with other whole domains. The granularity of our vantage point shifts as we move from details to unified wholes. On the one hand, when we examine the nuances of the members of a given class, we are at the ground level, as it were, and we can see details clearly, but distinctions only with difficulty. Think of walking through a dense forest where one can see the different colours and shapes of the leaves, the different bark textures, and so on, but one cannot point out where one tree ends and another begins. On the other hand, when we telescope out and we view a domain from far away, details disappear and boundaries become clear. Imagine you are a bird flying through the tree tops in the forest canopy from where it is clear where one tall tree structure ends and another one begins. Of course, if we telescope out even further, even boundaries disappear and perhaps new classes appear. Imagine flying in a helicopter high above the forest from where individual trees are no longer distinguishable, but from which perspective other larger groupings emerge, e.g. patches of conifers, areas of clear-cut, and so on.
           Moving between vantage points, gathering ground-level details and then abstracting away in order to see higher level patterns, is the way in which we develop our concepts, deepen our thoughts. Michael Oakeshott, a vocal defender of the humanities in education, has argued that the free give and take of conversation in a liberal arts classroom is, both in methodology and in content, the best implementation of this process. Today, thanks to our developing understanding of how neural structures underwrite higher-level cognitive capacities such as conceptual thought, we can see how this movement between lower level detail and higher level generalization is exactly mirrored at the neural level.
           In this paper I will use Oakeshott's description and defence of liberal arts learning, pitched at what I will call the psychological level, as a touchstone for providing a neurological description of the underlying processes. With this isomorphism I hope to achieve two ends. First, by adding scientific confirmation to Oakeshott's compelling philosophical hypothesis, that liberal arts learning plays an essential role in our cognitive development, his arguments will be strengthened. In the current climate of scientism, this approach will likely gain wider appeal than has Oakeshott's purely philosophical defence. Given the general global trend to slash and burn liberal arts departments, the more evidence we can present to the contrary, the better. Second, I want to undermine the impulse to draw a dichotomy between either/or thinking, on the one hand, and spectrum thinking, on the other. The more accurate way to see them, I will argue, is as different loci in an overall process, which we can see, telescoping out even further, as a cyclical one: lower level arrays of interconnected units yield higher levels of organisation that in turn constrain and influence further connections.

Ronald Richardson, San Francisco State University
The Stuff That Dreams are Made Of: The Real, the Unreal, and the "Maltese Falcon"
Using the figure of the Maltese Falcon from Dashiell Hammett's 1929 novel and John Huston's 1941 film, I will show that modern humans are confused about what is real and what is unreal. Everything we can talk and write about is an artificial fiction, a copy of a copy of a copy, yet narrative has material existence; therefore, it is real. With the black bird tucked under my arm, I will lead listeners out of Plato's cave and up through Jean Baudrillard levels of simulacra until we emerge into the real world and fly away. My purpose is to propose an all-encompassing definition of reality, which is incomplete until it acknowledges the integral importance of fiction to our experience and understanding. The falcon may be the stuff that dreams are made of, but that stuff is real and immensely valuable.

Nicole Clawson, Brigham Young University
Vernon Lee: The "Tiger-Cat" Deconstructionist
Little scholarship has been done on Vernon Lee's gothic attempts to disrupt the Victorian gender binary. Lee used her literature to break from Victorian sphere ideology where men belong in the public sphere and women in the domestic. Colby, Kane, and Maxwell have written on gender issues in Lee, but fail to consider the relevance of deconstruction theory to Lee's work. Lee's literary works deconstruct the social hierarchy of her time in order to create a better, stronger system than existed before. Jacques Derrida's deconstruction theory upends binary oppositions, which enable one to question the validity of the hierarchy. Lee topples the binary in her gothic texts while advocating for a new gender system.
           This paper will not deconstruct Lee's work, but show how Lee herself participated in a kind of pre-Derridian deconstruction of the Victorian gender binary. Close readings of Lee's "Oke of Okehurst," "A Wicked Voice," and "Amour Dure," reveal how Lee subverts gender ideology by creating a new type of femme fatale. By defying gendered objectification and asserting personal identity and independence these femme fatales, and Lee herself, take a stand against the gender double standard of the 1890s and celebrate the power of women.

Luda Popenhagen, CSUCI
Staging Daniil Kharms' 'The Old Woman': Beyond the Differences
In mid-November 2014 American director Robert Wilson's production The Old Woman, based on the short stories and poems of Russian avant-gardist and proto-absurdist Daniil Kharms, was performed at UCLA's Royce Theatre. Virtually two decades before Wilson's production, another version/stage adaptation of these same stories was directed in Vilnius, Lithuania by Oskaras Koršunovas (an internationally-recognized and award-winning metteur-en-scène) in the nineties, as the Soviet regime was collapsing.
           In the Koršunovas version the director staged a collage of scenes that recalled the experiences of concentration camp internees, featured themes of starvation and ever-present death, and the monotony of everyday life. Wilson's production - a disjointed series of episodes alluding to hunger, death, and boredom - put less focus upon the social and political agenda. It was an aesthetic tour de force featuring exquisite, colorful lighting, asymmetrical geometrical forms, and nonrealistic stage furniture and objects. With Wilson, virtuoso dancer Mikhail Baryshnikov and film superstar Willem Dafoe played all the roles; in the Koršunovas production there was a large ensemble of young actors. Despite the contrasting choices regarding the political/apolitical context and the differing experience-levels of the actors and the two directors, a logical narrative structure was not the focus of either mise-en-scène. Both used text and non-realistic, idiosyncratic images and acting that was buffoonish, physically dynamic, and zany. This paper will investigate why and how these two seemingly polar-opposite mises-en-scènes of The Old Woman were, in essence, similar.

Rebecka Black, University of Arizona
Classroom Savoir: Mapping Effects of Student Power
Students "know what they do; they frequently know why they do what they do; but what they don't know is that what they do does." I contend that most instructors also do not realize the effects of what students do because they are operating within what Foucault terms as the connaissance of classroom power structure, rather than within the network of power relations that exist in the classroom. This connaissance tells us that the instructor is an expert with power to conduct the class however is felt necessary. And, the classroom space, as discussed in Discipline and Punish, has historically been structured to reinforce this traditional model wherein the instructor enacts surveillance and unquestioned authority over the class. However, Foucault, in other writings, inverts traditional modes of thinking about power analytics. In this presentation I too enact inversion thinking concerning power analytics in the classroom. By mapping the effects of power articulations from students I explore the idea of classroom power relations - the responsive savoir that encourages free movement of power and juxtapose it with the connaissance of classroom power structure. In doing so, this presentation questions the persistent binary that exists between the fixed identities of student and instructor.

Candy Winters, San Francisco State University
The Complexities and Importance of Dress in Jane Austen
In literature, the topic of dress is often considered a cut and dry issue: if a character puts great care into her clothing and appearance, she is considered vain and surface-level. If a character is not concerned with these topics, than she is humble and complex. In her novels, Jane Austen plays with this idea, and demonstrates the importance of dress and the many levels in which to consider it. Critics have written that Austen does not mention dress often in her novels because it was considered an improper topic of conversation at the time. While Austen does, at times, follow the trope of having shallow characters obsessed with clothing, she does not downplay the importance of dress. It is not just a matter of the vain/modest binary. Dress is significant in Austen's fiction because of the issues it raises for her characters: the anxiety of being dressed appropriately can make one feel vulnerable and scrutinized, but knowing how to dress oneself is a sign of independence and self-knowledge. Dress can be used as power. Dress is important for Austen's characters, and so it must also be important to her readers.

Caitlin Fitzpatrick, San Francisco State University
The Male Performance: Exploration of Masculinity in the Novel and Film Adaptations of Laura
In 1942, the world of gender dynamics and distribution of sexual power was a highly volatile and fluctuating place. The male audiences of the Noir genre sought to redefine conceptions of masculinity and find their footing in a world where traditionally masculine roles could be adopted by both sexes. It is within this social context that author Vera Caspary and director Otto Preminger present their novel and film versions of Laura, the tantalizing story of Laura Hunt and the men caught her in web. Each of the men in Laura's life - her fiancé Shelby Carpenter, her mentor Waldo Lydeker, and the detective McPherson - perform a specific and distinct kind of masculine role. As the plot careens wildly, each male is given the opportunity to offer a different version of what a man's role should be, as well as comment on the legitimacy of each other's performance. In these moments we can see a cultural exploration of masculinity being negotiated. By looking specifically at each of these three male figures, we can consider the anxieties, images, and roles surrounding the redefinition of what it means to be, and perform, male.

Camille Johnson, California State University, Fullerton
Fever Eyes and Swordlike Thighs: Monstrous Bodies as Sites of the Abject in "The Day of the Locust"
Monsters are not purely the domain of horror and fantasy. According to Judith Halbersham, they reflect what society fears and rejects; they are the outsiders. However, in The Day of the Locust, they are society. How can a society simultaneously be itself and outside of itself? Julia Kristeva's theory of the abject offers a solution to this supposed contradiction. As both Same and Other, the abject is a collapse of boundaries, a contamination. The characters within the novel all bear features commonly associated with monsters: deformed bodies, foul temperaments, a lack of control, and yet, for the most part they are not rejected. They bear the Sameness of their society because it too is deformed, foul, and chaotic. Just as the characters are abject beings on the boundaries, so is the setting that cannot purge those whom it condemns because those abject beings are integral to society's sense of itself. This paper focuses how the monstrous characters function and how they are perceived in a society that does not want them but cannot reject them, bringing into question what makes monsters monstrous-their lack of familiarity or the very opposite.

Marcia Roberts-Deutsch, University of Hawaii-Honolulu
Queering the Binary, questioning the boundaries: Gender in/as Performance
The category of gender is one that has long been constructed as a binary, rooted in assumptions of simple differentiation of sex (male/female) as well as a privileging of the heteronormative in object choice (opposite sex pairing.) Discourse that disrupts that terrain in certain contexts has worked to deconstruct that binary through the heightened visibility (and, on occasion, protected status) of lesbian and gay, and more recently, bisexual and trans (LGBT.) Current parlance-"LGBTQQ"-broadens the spectrum even further to include the more fluid though inclusive perspectives of "queer" and "questioning." While this expansion of gender expressions requires a critical rethinking of the social construction of gender, is it more than simply a proliferation of categories that also, in turn, may become fixed and reified? Drawing on Judith Butler's formulation of performativity in relation to selected works of performance art, we rethink gender not as something one has, but something that one does; gender in/as performance moves away from an externally imposed construction (a kind of social exoskeleton) to a more dynamic and individually articulated expression of the creative engagement of person and world.

Todd Herzog, University of Cincinnati
Surveillance as Performance
Scott McNealy famously asserted over a decade ago that privacy is dead and we should all just "get over it." More recently, Mark Zuckerberg has asserted that privacy is "no longer a social norm." We live in a time in which we need to deal with newly evolving notions of privacy and surveillance. And yet discussions of contemporary surveillance practices repeatedly draw upon a metaphor that was developed well over a half-century ago: George Orwell's "Big Brother." My paper argues that there has been a fundamental shift in the past decade in the way in which surveillance is both practiced and understood and that we need new guiding metaphors to make sense of it. Examining the work of selected contemporary artists (Jill Magid and Ai Weiwei), I sketch a radically different attitude toward surveillance: the acceptance of the death of privacy and a consequent appropriation of the techniques of surveillance. This shift has brought about a new conception of the power dynamics that move beyond the binary of the surveiller-surveilled relationship. We need a new theory of surveillance that moves beyond binary oppositions of the (powerful) observer and the (powerless) observed.

Megan Kolendo, University of Alaska, Anchorage
The Road to Meta-Modernism: Hope and Anxiety in the 21st Century
Binary oppositions may have ruled the day at one time, but the turn of the century and multiple global events have led to an unthroning of sorts. Replacing the most recent binaries of postmodernism (seen as a neither/nor mentality) with a new approach, society and culture is now embarking on the world of metamodernism (a both/neither mentality). Metamodernism, in this regard, offers us an alternative way of seeing and feeling that focuses on an oscillation between multitudinous poles. In my presentation I will focus on the poles of hope and anxiety as expressed in Cormac McCarthy's 2006 novel, The Road. Considering literature as a window and a mirror for society, this text allows us to better understand the relationship between these two oppositional feelings and the way our 21st century society is attempting to usurp the binary mentality of old and is embracing a new structure of feeling based upon a multiplicity of forms.

Stefan Love, University of Massachusetts Amherst
Right and Wrong: What is a Mistake in Jazz Improvisation?
The concept of "mistake" is antithetical to jazz's spirit of uninhibited creativity. But jazz, like any musical style, conforms to a system of rules and conventions: indeed, this is what defines the style-what makes it sound like jazz and not some other style. When a jazz solo is "outside," or "out," it bears little relationship to the underlying harmony. But paradoxically, musicians require extensive instruction to play this way: an incompetent improviser is not merely playing "out." A rule of thumb for the improviser: it's not a mistake if you play it twice. But would it be a mistake if you played it once?
           These enticing contradictions are at the heart of jazz improvisation. In this talk, I offer a jazz perspective on the binary "right and wrong." Throughout the 2014-2015 academic year, I am recording and analyzing solos by jazz students at the University of Massachusetts. There can indeed be mistakes in jazz. But this category is difficult to outline. Drawing on analyses of these solos and input from students, I offer some thoughts on the "mistake" in jazz and other art forms.

Brandy Deminna, San Francisco State University
Pamela Plays Cards: Gambling and Play in the Eighteenth-Cenutry British Novel
I seek to reveal the fine line between playing card games for the purpose of amusement and gambling for high stakes in two eighteenth-century British novels and one eighteenth-century British play. I will argue that the moment the line between play and gambling is crossed, the characters in these texts risk their virtue and their reputations. However, if the characters are able to play cards without falling prey to the allure of gambling, they maintain their virtue and social standing. The three primary texts I will use to discuss the intricacies of this argument are: The History of Sir Charles Grandison by Samuel Richardson, and Jane Austen's Sir Charles Grandison and Mansfield Park by Jane Austen.

Paul Kintzele, University of Houston-Downtown
The Permutations of Ecstasy in *The Magus*
In his 1965 novel The Magus (revised and republished in 1977), John Fowles stages an encounter between Nicholas Urfe, a confused young English schoolteacher and would-be poet, and Maurice Conchis, an older, mysterious Greek millionaire who creates a complex and conspiratorial "godgame" that ensnares the young man by seeming to offer the fulfillment of all his secret fantasies. Crucial to Conchis's spellbinding power is his ability to narrate, and in its central section the novel is punctuated by four extraordinary stories drawn from Conchis's life (or so it seems). While Fowles's later novels and short stories (The French Lieutenant's Woman or "The Enigma" from The Ebony Tower) are much more explicit in their use of metanarrativity, The Magus is implicitly about the very thing that it depicts, which is seduction via narration-that is, the intersection of plot and desire. While much of the criticism of the novel centers on the overall masque staged by Conchis and his confederates and the way the novel interrogates the binary of reality and fantasy, less attention has been paid to the structural details of the four stories told by Conchis and the way they use the permutations of other fundamental binaries to map out various forms of ecstatic being, in love, art, religion, and war.

Stephen Husarik, University of Arkansas - Fort Smith
The Making of Humanities Across the Arts: Case Studies and a Critical Method
Dr. Stephen Husarik spent two years compiling materials from his experiences teaching thousands of students over thirty years for his new humanities textbook entitled Humanites Across the Arts. The textbook is currently in use by Humanities classes at the University of Arkansas - Fort Smith. This workshop will explore Husarik's application of a four-step Critical Method for evaluating artworks and his procedures for developing Case Studies found in the book. His presentation presents several case studies including an analysis of Van Gogh's The Starry Night (1889), the properties of Golden Section proportions found in Ancient Greek classical statues, and a revealing analysis of key changes found in Mozart's Symphony No. 40 in G minor. Participants should be able to leave the session with the ability to evaluate flat pattern design, recognize how key changes affect musical form, and to judge classical proportions found in their own bodies. Using the book as a reference, and time permitting, participants may also visit the chateau at Versailles-using Louis XIV's own handwritten tour of the gardens to discover the hidden military implications of his estate. Those wishing to have advance knowledge of the textbook and its organization can obtain copies at Kendall Hunt Publishers at: 800-247-3458. ISBN: 978-1-4652-5877-9

Bernardo Machado, University of São Paulo
Broadway abroad: a study of modalities of difference between New York (US) and São Paulo (Brazil)
During XXI-century, Broadway musicals started to be vastly replicated in Brazil, and original Brazilian musicals staged in São Paulo City have been produced using Broadway musical conventions as reference. Thus, the paper objective is to identify what symbols are negotiated between these two cities' entertainment industries. The analysis will not approach the problem from a binary opposition--such as interior/exterior. The results might indicate that by incorporating the "other"-"the foreign"-through their music, history, and choreography, Brazilians take their "otherness" and become someone else and feel like they are somewhere else. It is as if, by performing Broadway musicals, Brazilians can share global experience through American culture and produce it's own theatre culture. Moreover, the methodology will not make a distinction between "we" (anthropologists) and "them" (native groups to be studied). When operating a comparison between the realities found in New York and São Paulo, the paper will highlight heterogeneous aspects focusing on the flow of symbols from one site to the other avoiding a one-dimensional conception of stabilized differences. There are no general and invariable differences between these cities and the musicals they produce, but, rather, modalities of difference that differ among themselves.

Lauren Davis, University, Istanbul, Turkey
Reuniting Heritage: Scent and Sensory Explorations of Istanbul's Past and Present
Though scholarship on heritage has become increasingly nuanced, the bifurcation of heritage into "tangible" and "intangible" has resulted in an artificial division that obscures the complex processes by which heritage is created and exists. By employing more embodied approaches to heritage, researchers are afforded the opportunity to re-contextualize heritage both outside of and between these categories. In particular, utilizing the senses in heritage studies not only helps connect people to the past and the present in unique ways, it contributes to a more complete understanding of the lived heritage of people and places. This paper explores heritage through the sensory experience of smell, focusing on the historical market quarter of Eminonu in Istanbul. Odors exist as created and manipulated aspects of the environment, as the natural by-products of millions of human activities, and as significant triggers for memories and emotions. This paper shows how incorporating this sensory perspective helps to develop a more inclusive, non-divisive awareness of heritage, and it examines how this new data can be preserved and transmitted to the local community and to visitors.

Keith Roche, San Francisco State University
Rhizomatic Thought and Inspector Bucket as Nomad in the World of Bleak House
Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari's A Thousand Plateaus (1980), addresses and seeks to provide an alternative to traditionally vertical, arborescent Western thought which leads to thinking in binary oppositions and privileges one term over another. As an alternative the model of the rhizome is offered. Spreading continuously without beginning or end, this root grows horizontally and has no centrality. This model allows for multiple, non-hierarchal concepts of thought. Deleuze and Guattari relate the rhizome model to the figure of the nomad, who experiences and moves about space in a smooth and free way, able to connect with continuous multiplicities.
           This paper explores the way Inspector Bucket, from Charles Dickens' Bleak House, is a Deleuzian "nomad" who distorts and exploits the concept of a stable, fixed subject position in space-time in order to understand and unravel the complications surrounding the legendary Jarndyce and Jarndyce inheritance case. Bucket sees his environment as rhizomatic, exploring the links between people and places from various classes, and creating a free-flowing space for himself in order to observe the functions of the Victorian socio-economic system and discern the links that lead to a resolution to this mystery. Bucket's "nomad" status upends and challenges the binaries that class structures depend, those of social segregation and the monolingual dominance.

Rachael Hammond, Shenandoah University
Life, Death, and Circling Will
This paper discusses the relationship between the life/death dichotomy and Western literary themes of magic, nature, art, and types of will.
           Medieval ballads predicted the fears that nineteenth century writers Mary Shelley, Tennyson, and Wilde would later present. The mesmerizing quest to merge life and death even dominates much storytelling today, as countless tales feature vampires, zombies, and similar creatures. In general, though, the ultimate lessons caution that man will suffer for tampering with the natural binary, so he should accept his mortal fate.
           Romantic poets also contemplated mutability. Keats and P.B. Shelley studied the profound interdependency of art and audience, while fusing ideas of art and nature. Like Anglo-Saxon and Renaissance poets, they knew that art engenders immortality but sparks from the living, breathing --and reading members of the audience. Art is an interactive experience that defies the human condition.
           Keats's negative capability revealed a singular alchemy, though, and Shelley purposefully engaged art to inspire his own rebirth; both poets explored the potential of the individual, working alone. Wordsworth, however, most plainly presented the power of personal will. Heralding an unlikely sage, a simple girl, he suggested that all possess an opportunity to smash the death/life binary.

Bethany Qualls, University of California, Davis
Sleeping Her Way to the Top: The Menace of the Female Sexual Predator in Early American Cinema and Text
Just what is so threatening about economic gain through sex? Glamorous and excessive, the image of the gold digger continues to fascinate and frustrate censors, critics, audiences, and reviewers. Take the shifting representations of the gold digger in American film and text from the positive in the 1920s to the punishing in the 1930s. This shift demonstrates how she troubles binaries such as legitimate/illegitimate labor and public/private space. This paper examines both representations and receptions of the gold digger in Anita Loos' Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1925), the Gold Diggers film cycle (1929-38), and the film Baby Face (1933) to trace the figure's relationship to work, sex, and morality before and after the Crash of 1929.|
           I argue that gold-digging women who refuse lesser-paid "legitimate" jobs and instead chose to become kept women threaten the domesticity needed to support American capitalism. In not acting as a (re)producer, the gold digger works for her own personal gain instead of creating unpaid labor for a family unit. The gold digger thus exposes fissures in the sexual economy, creating questions about authenticity, intent, and value that go beyond simple classifications.

David Hatch, University of South Carolina
Dismantling Mythmaking: Mark Tansey and Jeffrey Eugenides
Mark Tansey and Jeffrey Eugenides share an interest in cultural references and archetypes that invite the criticism of their artistic mythmaking. Visual artist and writer each use archetypes, symbolism, and motifs to provide insight into universal and fundamental human themes and experiences. However, the deeper one probes these structures, the more shallow and self-critical their meaning often becomes. Because each artist's work is heavy with cultural reference, one expects that to link these cultural references to their historical antecedents will reveal great and powerful truths. However, what is revealed is the futility of a return to a "golden age" of human existence, doubt in the actuality of such an age, the distortive properties of memory, and skepticism about the value of the relics of past ages. This presentation explores how Eugenides and Tansey play with the conventions of myth, using the motifs to reveal indeterminacy of meaning and the decenteredness of existence rather than universal, fundamental truths.

Loretta Stec, San Francisco State University
Gertrude Stein, Portraits, and Pedagogy
Given the difficulties of orienting students—or oneself—to the more experimental work of Gertrude Stein, gradually approaching it via the visual arts, and Stein’s own comments on painting and literary portraiture, helps pave the way for an apprehension of Stein’s break with conventional modes of representing “flowers or people or landscapes or houses or anything else.” A focus on the essays “Pictures” and “Portraits and Repetition” from Lectures in America along with images of selected paintings, and literary portraits from the Stein oeuvre assists students in moving from the more “realistic,” narrative works of Stein -- particularly The Making of Americans, Three Lives, and The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas--to the more radically non-mimetic works such as “Tender Buttons.”

Alessia Mingrone, Saint Mary's College of California
Shakespeare Humors His Characters
Shakespeare's tragedies all have one thing in common: they are very bloody. Two of his most famous, Hamlet and Macbeth, are replete with references to blood and hands, emphasizing the importance of the human body. I decided to research the notion of the four bodily humors, which was popular in the early modern period. I argue that Macbeth is excessively sanguine and choleric, while Hamlet is melancholy. The dichotomy between the two proves that the excess of any humor in the body will lead to the individual's tragic downfall. Because Shakespeare's tragedies view the protagonists from within, it becomes evident that their free will operates in the context of their biological determinism. They are tragic characters because their humoral imbalances are ultimately too strong for their wills to overcome. The overarching question of whether science and divinity can ever be reconciled ultimately arises as a result of this essay. Shakespeare's plays are so great because, as in real life, they demonstrate that divinity and science are neither mutually exclusive, nor opposed. The characters have certain physical and humoral limitations; this notion does not exclude the influence of the divine on the entire scope of human life.

Lisa Graley, University of Louisiana at Lafayette
The "Becoming" Beyond the Binary of Life and Death in Bergman's The Seventh Seal and Bill T. Jones's Still/Here
In an effort to focus on "process" and "transition" in medicine, disease, and other health-related matters, a number of theorists, sociologists, anthropologists, and medical researchers in recent decades have turned to the vision of French philosophers Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari whose work in the 1980s and 1990s suggests a view of human existence in terms of the "body without organs," or "BwO," a phrase coined by playwright Antonin Artaud. Deleuze and Guattari's approach asks that we consider ourselves human "becomings" rather than human "beings," or "cross currents of flows" rather than fixed identities. We are, they argue, "contested territories" struggling for choices, or "lines of flight."
           At odds with biodeterminism, their view suggests that humans are not merely products of internal and external forces acting upon them, but rather they are "becomings" with desires and creativity and the potential to have some say in the courses of actions they take.
           While the Deleuzian and Guattarian model-with its recognition of emotions, psychology, and especially relationships with friends, family, and healthcare workers-may point us toward more comprehensive and more humane systems of doctoring and caretaking, this approach can be difficult for undergraduates to grasp without practical application.
           In this paper, I will examine two works from my Medicine and Disease class that allow insight into the vision of the "Body without Organs": Ingmar Bergman's The Seventh Seal and Bill T. Jones' Still/Here, dramatic pieces that explore the crossroads faced by individuals diagnosed with terminal illness. The old adage "you're never more alive than when you're on the edge of death" perhaps meets one of its most poetic expressions in Bergman's The Seventh Seal. Likewise, Jones's Still/Here gracefully transcends the spaces between life and death, living and dying, in its choreography of the gestures, life walks, and assemblages created by actual patients living with terminal or chronic diseases. Together, the two works may serve to introduce students to the possibilities inherent in thinking of a "Body Beyond Organs," of human existence beyond the binary of life and death.

Nancy VanKanegan, Columbia College Chicago
In Praise of the Pause
Our lives are designed around consistency and flow, but social practices continually interrupt us. Our minds respond to interruptions of continuous stimuli with annoyance and acceptance. We complain but keep moving.
           The practice of intentional breathing is the basis more most meditiative techniques. The polarity of fullness/emptiness, action/suspension, internal/external, acceptance/surrender can be explored with each breath. When social activity suspends, physical activity is minimal, focus is on the breath, and mental activity is restricted or suspended, stillness is invited.
           Meditative spaces are often built into peopled areas: gardens, cemeteries, Labyrinths, walking meditation halls of monasteries. Visual objects like Mandalas and Rosaries encourage union with internal and external feelings. Artists in this and last century have referenced silent practices in creation of their work. John Cage, Hamish Fulton, Ann Hamilton and Linda Montano use silence as an artistic ingredient.
           In this presentation/workshop the internal and external meditative 'space' will be explored. Through discussing the above art and architecture, the creative potential of stillness will be examined. Session participants will be guided through meditative techniques using mditation on an image (mandala, labyrinth), breath awareness (Sama Vritti Pranayama or Equal Breathing, 3 part yoga breath, Nadi Shodhana or alternate nostril breathing), and silence.

Roberta D'Alois, University of San Francisco
Art or Therapy? You Make the Call; An Interactive Presentation on Evaluating Hidden Messages in First Year Student Writing
With many colleges in the news more for violent episodes than for academic affairs, many of us are concerned that we're missing signals our students are sending out. We may read student work that appears to be expressing deep pathological problems - suicidal ideation, self-harm, harm to others - and we may struggle to evaluate this work fairly. We may genuinely wonder if a particular poem is the work of someone who's struggling with depression? Or is this rape-murder-teacher story something to be concerned about? We may want to evaluate whether a piece of student writing is a deep metaphor or a cry for help. Most of us are not trained to evaluate this work beyond evaluating content and judging artistic expression. However, there are often messages in student work that if we know what to look for, we may be able to more clearly help evaluate whether this student is talking artistically or pathologically. We will engage in an interactive discussion using some adapted and anonymized student work, and brainstorm on how we might best tease out whether this work is a call for intervention or whether this is artistic work and can be judged in its own merits. Roberta D'Alois is a licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (inactive) as well as a playwright, and teaches first year writing at USF and SF State.

Victoria Trang, San Francisco State University
Noir Adaptation and Conversion in Alan Moore's Watchmen
Many noir issues, such as the portrayal of women, an ineffectual police force, and moral ambiguity, have been applied to not only neo-noir concerns regarding the 1960s-1980s such as the dangers of nuclear weapons, the Cold War, the Vietnam War, the aftermath, and civil rights, but also with the concerns of detective and superhero comics. Watchmen presents a bleak world where detectives and the police cannot protect the common people, where the "superman" does not understand the morality of his actions, or where right and wrong does not adequately define justice. With this backdrop of an unsure future, and the cravings for nostalgia and the past, the graphic novel signifies, as Dr. Manhattan would say, "Nothing ends. . . Nothing ever ends." (Moore, XII.27) While Alan Moore may consider superhero comics cultural catastrophes, Watchmen draws its power from the pulp fiction, detective stories, noir, neo-noir, superhero, and other genres it incorporates into its whole. The structure of Watchmen and its character embody fusions of genres or fears relevant to the 1959s-1980s that stem from the binary, in turn illustrating the indebtedness of the work as a whole upon the past and seemingly clear binaries even when it tries to condemn them.

Nadège Rolland-Samé, University of Poitiers, France
"Beyond 'good' and 'bad' cops: ambivalent figures of transgression in 'Serpico' (1973), 'Prince of the City' (1981) and 'Bad Lieutenant' (1992)
On the surface, Frank Serpico ('Serpico', Sidney Lumet, 1973), Danny Ciello ('Prince of the City', Sidney Lumet, 1981) and the "bad lieutenant" ('Bad Lieutenant', Abel Ferrara, 1992) are either "good" or "bad" cops. Both Serpico and Ciello denounce the corruption which has become a widespread routine in the force, whereas the "bad lieutenant" is the incarnation of degradation and sin. A deeper exploration of these films reveals that the three characters have a complex relationship to the law. Indeed, Serpico has faith in a pure, absolute conception of the law. As a result, he must transgress the corrupt law of his fellow workers to conform to his ideal. Narcotics agent Ciello is an ambivalent figure who supplies his informants with drugs to get information while indulging in criminal acts. He thus breaks the law both to guarantee its existence and to satisfy his own needs. The "bad lieutenant" is the epitome of the law-breaker, but his capacity for spiritual redemption links him with the supreme law of God. In their own ways, all three characters are, in Foucauldian terms, parrhesiastic figures who dare telling the truth to the powers that be. They evoke the Greek Cynics of the Antiquity who chose outspokenness as a radical way of life. The three movies invite us to reconceptualize the notions of law and transgression beyond the binary division of good and evil: to what extent is it possible to strictly adhere to the spirit of the law? Is telling the truth, which implies a form of transgression, necessary to maintain to law?

Jennifer Ellis, University of Michigan, Jonathan Hulting-Cohen, University of Massachusetts
The Sacred and the Profane: A Lecture Recital of New Music for Harp and Saxophone
Small and Big. Loud and notoriously soft. Portable and stationary. Sustained sound versus plucked. Comparing the saxophone and the harp is an exercise in opposites. They sound different, their historical iconography is different, and the instruments' attributed genders are different. However, bridging this divide is core to what we do as the Admiral Launch Duo. Over the past two years, we have commissioned eight new works for harp and saxophone by composers including Dylan Baker, Joseph Bozich, Matthew Browne, Christine Hedden, Natalie Moller, Patrick O'Malley, Steve Rush and Diana Sussman. This lecture recital will explore the strategies some of these new works use to ameliorate the standard binary divide between our instruments. We will begin by outlining the past divisions between our instruments. Then, we will examine some of the methods our composers have used to knit the two instruments together, with particular emphasis on the vocabulary of extended techniques. Finally, we will demonstrate these strategies in performance. As part of an emerging genre of harp and saxophone duos, we welcome the opportunity to complicate the traditional dichotomy between our instruments through both academic and musical means.

Barry Peterson, University of Nevada, Reno
Our likes and dislikes make life a battleground
To make sense of a complicated world, we tend to create emotional attachments and aversions to people we like and dislike. In preparation for the chaos of battle, this tendency can be deliberately amplified to the extent that soldiers willingly both sacrifice for their brother and slaughter the enemy. Though it is perhaps an effective means of survival, considering the negative emotional repercussions of the process can motivate us to examine war's logic, revealing the twins of attachment and aversion to be the true enemy. The twins' presence ensures that one's inner peace is as brittle and temporary as a battleground's cease-fire, to be snatched away by either the satisfaction or the violation of our next personal preference. The act of removing the binary lenses of friend or enemy, hero or coward, terrorist or freedom fighter, frees us to see others with new eyes. This fresh way of seeing contributes to a more sustainable and invulnerable peace of mind which leads to the eventual cessation of war both within our minds and across the globe. By seeing beyond the binary, we simplify the world's seemingly irresistible complexities to gain a greater appreciation for the goodness present in each person.

Tim Tsang, CalArts
John's Cage 50.0: Linear/Non-Linear Experiments Regarding "Either/Or/And/But/Too", Over Time
To be binary or not to be binary - that is the question...or not? Either a thing is or it is not. One cannot breathe in and out at the same time, but perhaps one may think about doing so, and even try to do it too.
           Featuring a discursive dance between digital running stopwatch, amplified analogue clock, digital piano keyboard, and time-lapse videos, this performance/presentation/workshop is an investigation regarding "Either/Or/And/But/Too". Topics include: Linear VS Non-Linear, Trinary Thinking Models, 4D VS 4th Wall, Time Travel, John Cage's 4'33" and 0'00", Glenn Gould's Notion of Negation, Bruce Lee's Jeet Kune Do, and Zizek's "The Reality of the Virtual".
           To be binary or not to be binary - that is the question...or not? (or what?)
           Repetition and/or "Recapitulation" can be 2 very similar ideas, or not? If Recursion is also considered, the trinary (or ternary) sum of the parts may present a deeper-than-before matrix of observation/experience regarding things happening again and again and again. But what is "than-before"? What is "before"? What is "again"?
           This performance/presentation will last 18 minutes, 30.312 seconds, within which a 120 second workshop will be included.

Christoph Zepeda, California School of Professional Psychology
Post-bariatric surgery narratives: The trans-fat experience
The point of departure for this presentation will be the documentary "All of me: A story of love, loss and last resorts," which follows the fellowship between a group of friends as some pursue weight-loss surgery. By the end of the film, ambivalent narratives emerge as transformations in body and mind develop. Some of these narratives touch upon the sensation of otherness akin to forbidden forms of sexuality and/or racialized identities that are that are equally frightening, familiar, and eroticized; although there exists an insatiable desire, there are also expressions of immutable instability,The experience of weight-loss is a process of processes that can't be relegated to a state of being (i.e., there are stages of weight loss identity development); at the same time, the experience of reducing size is simultaneously a state as well as a process(i.e., one cannot keep reducing forever).
The theoretical framework that will be used to examine this film will draw upon psychoanalysis, queer theory, trans theory, and the field of fat studies.

Eileen Harney, University of Alaska, Fairbanks
Motherhood vs. Heroism in Pop Culture: An Ongoing Divide for Women
The pop culture heroine often is written in ways that not only include, but also deliberately highlight the character's inability to form long-lasting or emotionally healthy familial bonds, especially that of mother and child. Within these women's narratives, the ongoing cultural binary of the proactive and independent "chaste" figure and the physically passive amorous and/or maternal figure is clearly demonstrated. Female characters presenting the first image now seem to pervade the media, especially in the Science Fiction and Fantasy genre. These figures, while certainly promoting the notion and presence of capable, self-sufficient women in the popular consciousness, ultimately function within the binary structure and work to deprive those who identify with these characters of the reasonable ambition of being a similarly self-sufficient and capable woman while also having a personal life that involves romantic partnerships and/or the possibility of children. This paper will concentrate on such problematic depictions of heroic female characters, primarily in popular Science Fiction and Fantasy television shows, comic books, novels, and films and will consider the impact such depictions have on readers and viewers who see these characters as role models.

Paul Krejci, University of Alaska Fairbanks
Beyond the Binary: Hybridization as an expression of muscial Globalization
Ethnomusicology, a field that emerged to document and analyze the world's musics within a given cultural context, is a useful tool to understand the links between musical cultures and the forces of globalization. A longstanding ethnomusicological argument surrounding musical globalization is whether its effects produce a state of homogenization or heterogenization. Moving beyond this binary, my paper examines hybridization as a process that provides a more fruitful description of musical change. Whereas aspects of musical homogenization and heterogenization are respectively associated with global and local processes, the mix of the global and local actually leads to hybridization, which is essentially the integration of a combination of musical elements from different cultural, ethnic, national, or other groups. Homogenization and heterogenization are very real outcomes of musicultural interaction, but hybridization or localized variants of globalization is a much more common occurrence, and therefore worthy of more study. Hybridization responds to the threat of musical and cultural loss by asserting local power, interpretation, and identity. This paper will present and analyze musical examples of hybridization ranging across various cultures, styles, and historical periods.

Shanna Cooper, San Francisco State University
Female Poets, Retreat Poetry, an' Defining New Spaces for Women's Fancy to Flourish in the Eighteenth Century
Eighteenth-century retirement poetry is defined as the poetry of solitude or retreat and speakers of such poems often create a binary between social withdrawal and social engagement. While some eighteenth-century women poets maintained this binary, many did not. With the exception of Paula Backscheider's chapter in Eighteenth-Century Women Poets and Their Poetry: Inventing Agency, Inventing Genre, women's retirement poetry has been largely unexplored in eighteenth-century studies. Backscheider argues that friendship poetry contains an element of retreat and that women used retirement poetry to create a space to explore selfhood. I will expand on Backscheider's argument by asserting that women poets created a hybridization of friendship and retreat poetry allowing them to overcome the social withdrawal/social engagement binary endemic to the genre and create intimate intellectual and imaginary creative spaces of retreat with their friends. I will analyze poems by Sarah Fyge Egerton, Mary Whateley Darwell, Sarah Dixon, and Elizabeth Carter. Women's retirement poetry deserves greater attention, not only because these women poets were writing in two traditionally masculine genres (friendship and retirement poetry), but because they merged them to form safe, creative spaces for other women, anchoring the wandering and solitary aspect of retreat into one of sisterhood and intimacy.

Ileana da Silva, San Francisco State University
Texts and Contexts: Placing New Media on the Continuum of Oral and Written Language
In Spoken Language Interference Patterns in Written English, Helene Krauthamer describes the differences in formality between spoken and written language. She builds on the research of previous theorists, who observed an "oral/written dichotomy." Krauthamer proposes that to understand the variability within language, academics should transcend the concept of language as a binary and instead perceive it in terms of "interferences": blended aspects in oral and written language. Krauthamer's work was published before the advent of Facebook, Twitter, blogging, and the most ubiquitous: texting. With the introduction of new media comes the need for a reimagining of the oral/written continuum. Where do we place these new forms of communication on the continuum? How do they transform and expand the manifold landscape of language? How do they complicate current conceptions of oral/written language?
           The emergence of new media and its effect on the way we interpret and construct written language demands that we must consider language within a framework that replaces the either/or schemas of the past with a multimodal perspective. This allots for a more accurate, comprehensive understanding of language that extends beyond binary figurations to accommodate the composition of texts within the context of the oral and written spectrum.

Derek Bobella, DePaul University
From Iago to Claggart and Beyond: Examining Binary Opposition within Literary Archetype
This work will demonstrate and analyze the different types of evolving archetypes within literature utilizing literary theory and continental philosophy to better understand the changing dichotomy of Good/Evil and how it has developed into our contemporary structure. Critical analysis of texts from Shakespeare, Melville, Bukowski and Collins will be utilized as well as support for examination by Jean-Paul Sartre and Umberto Eco.

Christina Kirchinger, University of Regensburg, Germany
Harmony of Tensions - An approach to composition in Fine Arts
Authors: Christina Kirchinger, Hans Gruber, Birgit Eiglsperger (Will not be attending.) "Harmony of Tensions" transcends the binary. This approach to composition in Fine Arts integrates two concepts (harmony, tension) that are often seen as contradictory. In the interaction of the two seemingly antithetic concepts, harmony and tension enrich and complement one another. In the presentation, the approach "Harmony of Tensions" is discussed in theory as well as in Fine Arts practice. It is claimed that formal contrasts in a work of art, such as the juxtaposition of a white plane beneath a black plane, have to be balanced by another contrast in the artwork in order to create a harmonic and tense whole which is pleasing and interesting at the same time. This is highlighted by several works of art. Understanding "Harmony of Tensions" may help to increase the understanding of composition of artwork. Such an understanding is also required in related disciplines to Fine Arts like Art Education, History of Arts, Architecture or Aesthetics as they also deal with works of art, their structure and conveying the ideas behind them. Furthermore, insights into artists' compositional thinking, the value of composition as well as criteria to compose art in an expert way are provided.

Cecilia Peek, Brigham Young University
Gods and Devils: Homeric Echoes and the Heroic Ideal in Goethe's Faust
Goethe's Faust, like other iterations of the Faust character, makes a deal with the devil, Mephisto. Unlike other versions of the story, however, Goethe's hero does not lose his soul. At Faust's burial, Mephisto, waits to take his soul into custody, confident that Faust is destined for hell. Unexpectedly the heavens open and angels appear. Mephisto argues with them as they descend to the grave, but to no avail-the angels retrieve Faust's body and carry it up to Heaven.
           A number of theories have been advanced to account for Faust's unexpected salvation. This paper proposes that one indication of the poet's intent can be found in Classical antecedents. Specifically, Faust's evolution and fate echo key themes in Homer's Odyssey, and Goethe's commemoration of that epic's hero reveals why his own hero is given a place in heaven instead of hell. The impulse that drives Odysseus to reject immortality and the garden paradise offered by the nymph Calypso is the same impulse that ironically assures Faust's immortality in the heavenly paradise. Both heroes understand that man must leave the garden, be it Calypso's or Eden's, in order to progress, and progress is the ultimate guarantee against a devilish damnation.

Teresa O'Rourke, Loughborough University, United Kingdom
'The orphan child of a brilliant century': Beyond Genre and Gender Dichotomies in Marilynne Robinson's Lila (2014)
In West of Everything (1992), Jane Tompkins considers the ideological function of the Western, contending that its 'real antagonist' was the dominant strain of nineteenth-century sentimental literature, before going on to offer a point-for-point contrast between the two genres. Taking this juxtaposition as its point of departure, this paper will offer a reading of Marilynne Robinson's Lila (2014). It will propose that while Robinson's latest novel appropriates several key characteristics of domestic fiction (and the paper will acknowledge the parallels between this and her 1980 novel, Housekeeping), there are a number of ways in which the novel's enigmatic protagonist and its representations of gender may be more fruitfully read as a reimagining of the Western. By destabilising the rigid dichotomy between these two genres, Robinson's novel problematizes conventional binaries including masculinity/femininity, religious/secular, morality/immorality, thus undercutting their potentially antagonistic relationship and opening new lines of enquiry for both.

Helen Clare Taylor, Louisiana State University, Shreveport Beyond
Good and Evil in the Films of the Brothers McDonagh
Martin and John Michael McDonagh, brothers with Irish roots, create movies that address similar themes of sacrifice and redemption. Films like Martin McDonagh's In Bruges (2008) and John Michael McDonagh's Calvary (2014) establish personal ledgers of behavior for each main character, as they are forced to weigh good deeds against bad and to confront their levels of responsibility and emotional debt. Both brothers acknowledge the Catholic theology which operates as deep background to their films but they recast big spiritual themes in unconventional and surprising narratives which often subvert our sense of who is good and who is bad. This technique resembles that of Flannery O'Connor, the southern writer whose stories often depict a character brought to grace or salvation through seeming evil rather than good. All three writers mediate and negotiate categories of good and evil. Their characters make "a good death" confident that they have lived a life of benefit to others despite their sins, failings, or human frailties. The McDonagh brothers subscribe to the idea of salvation but locate its attainment in a nuanced, ambiguous, postmodern world.

Sara Northerner, University of Louisville
I am 00110101 00110000 (or, Are We the Binary Data that We Generate?)
A combination of zeros and ones = binary data as the most basic form of code. A bit = either a zero or a one, becomes ongoing strings of complex information that are executed and understood only by a computer or digital device. In today's digital, user-oriented world, binary code is hidden from view, encrypted and stored in overwhelming numbers. Information is created, consumed, distributed and re-distributed via digital means about and by every person to the amount of over 2.5 quintillion bytes of data each day. We, as individuals, are increasingly defined by the massive influx of big data or the overload of information in our lives.
           In the early 1970's Alvin Toffler devised the term information overload to describe and question what would happen to both the individual and society as connective digital technologies grew in popularity and sophistication. In fall of 2014, I taught a 300-level course on Information Overload with students from Interdisciplinary Studies where we examined the cultural dependency upon information production/consumption through the Internet, Media and Social Media. The students were crucial in this seminar-style course for the change in their responses to how they regard and are impacted by digital media, digital-mediated communication and advances in technology. This paper will address some of the current key philosophical and conditional issues surrounding digital technology and the dichotomy of the influence that information overload has on individuals, society and the world. The simple question of "Is technology good/bad for us?" or asking whether or not we can/cannot influence how digital information controls our lives underscores the theme that will be presented. Ultimately the answer, as demonstrated by the students in the course, is not as easy as 0/1 or yes/no but found in navigating the control that digital data has in our lives.

Wai-Leung Kwok, San Francisco State University
Recollections in Tranquility: Wordsworth and the Trauma of Experience
Wordsworth's understanding of poetry as the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings, recollected in tranquility" offers an interesting perspective on the relationship between poetry and the role of recollection in rendering experience as the object of consciousness. The reading process plays an important role in this relationship, as Wordsworth often stages moments of epiphany in his poetry as scenes of reading. Examining one such staging in Wordsworth's "Lines Written a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey" in light of recent critical interest in trauma theories, I want to argue that Wordsworth poetics sheds light on the nature of the experience of experience itself.

Erich Freiberger, Jacksonville University
"There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so"
This paper considers some Stoic and Platonic antecedents to Hamlet's claim that "there is noting either good or bad but thinking makes it so" to argue for the far reaching influence of philosophy on the play. After investigating these antecedents in the dialogues and Stoic sources I explain their importance for interpreting the play - and Hamlet's character - as a portrait of the dispossession of Plato's philosopher-king, who, in classic Stoic fashion, is more concerned with the internal good of character and governing himself (and what lies within his power), than with the external good of the power he might exercise in ruling others. After suggesting how this accounts for both Hamlet's "put on" madness and his delay, I also consider the relevance of the use of Greek names in the play and show how they too are linked to the pervasive influence of philosophy on the play.

Sam Sturdivant, San Francisco State University
Penny Dreadful: The 21st-Century Victorian Gothic????????
Penny Dreadful, Showtime's 2014 Gothic Romance, puts some of the Nineteenth Century's most recognizable literary characters into conversation with each other. Characters from Mary Shelley's Frankenstein appear alongside characters from Bram Stoker's Dracula and Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray in a re-imagining of the iconic works. "Do you believe there is a demimonde?" asks Vanessa Ives, "A half world between what we know and what we fear? A place in the shadows, rarely seen but deeply felt?" The known and the unknown, the empirical and the instinctive - these are two examples of binary oppositions established in Penny Dreadful that are torn down and rebuilt by the end of its first season run.
           Penny Dreadful is interested in blurring the boundaries of the literature it draws influence from. This paper argues that the deconstruction and reconstruction of binaries in the show undermines typical generic structures, requiring the viewer to question and reconfigure their reliance on those structures as indicators of meaning. I argue that the new structures of these stories created in Penny Dreadful, and the binaries constructed within it, help contemporary audiences understand thematics of the Victorian Age that we are still grappling with Today.

Lee Ann Westman, University of Texas at El Paso
Beyond "Domestic" and "Sentimental": Why Popular 19th-century American Fiction Matters
In 1878, a columnist in the literary journal The Catholic World announced that popular taste functions as a major barrier to the production of a "master-work" in American literature. The author explains that the public has a preference for "the ridiculous and vicious trash so abundantly produced by those confessedly 'popular American novelists,' Mrs. Southworth, Mrs. Holmes, Mrs. Stephens, and their large brood of 'weird sisters,'" and good American fiction could not survive in this environment even if it were produced. This paper will examine the categories of "popular" vs "good," and make an argument for dismantling those categories in the humanities.

Khanum Shaikh, California State University, Northridge
Beyond Rescue-Reframing Advocacy and Intervention in the Women's Studies Classroom
The victim/rescue binary persists with tremendous power despite years of feminist and post-colonial critique. Books like Nicholas Kristof and Sheryl WuDunn's Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Opportunity for Women Worldwide have remained on the national bestseller list for weeks. What interests me are the ethics and politics behind the embrace of this text and how its seductive narrative informs the kind of humanitarian interventions most often embraced by the Global North. For me this text and its framing are a means by which to begin a larger conversation about the ethics of transnational collaboration and cross-border activism that I find increasingly relevant in the women's and gender studies classroom. I do not want students leaving my courses feeling paralyzed by the fact that any and all forms of global activism may be tainted by colonialist or neoliberal motives. At the same time the limited models of advocacy and intervention that are made available within the institutional setting often feel incomplete. The goal of this presentation is not simply to destabilize concepts like "rescue" and "social justice" but also to provide some concrete resources and strategies for reframing discussions about global advocacy and its inherent contradictions and complexities so that students can begin to identify for themselves why some interventions can hinder rather than advance women's rights.

Tyler Heid, San Francisco State University
Paul Ricouer: An Ameliorative Hermeneutic
Paul Ricouer puts forth in his essay, "Hermeneutics and the Critique of Ideology," a theory of hermeneutics that identifies and maintains the differences between Habermas's ideology-critique and Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics while simultaneously locating in them a common "zone of intersection." In doing so, he recognizes their disparity without questioning their respective legitimacy. His development of a textual hermeneutic showcases this ability to hold foundational theories in suspense, from Ast and Schleiermacher to Dilthey and Heidegger, without finding the need to reconcile or negate their conflicting components. The resulting synthesis is a bricolage of their best and most relevant parts, a rare example of theoretical compromise in a discipline marked by stubbornly argued dissenting opinions.
           In this paper, I argue that a return to Ricouer's brand of hermeneutics may help our deeply divided society better understand and articulate differing thoughts and perspectives. Examining how Deconstructive practice has diverged from Ricouer's hermeneutics will let us see how a re-fashioning of Ricouer's hermeneutic arc (back into the hermeneutic circle) has only led to a perpetuation and intensification of the divisive nature of our theoretical discourse. While exploring this inherently schismatic theoretical mode, utilizing Ricouer's hermeneutic may allow him to once again act as mediator.

Shannon McCraw, Southeastern Oklahoma State University
Oklahoma's Post Office Murals: A Study of American Indian Images
From 1934-1942, the United States federal government established an ambitious arts program to decorate federal buildings throughout the nation. The Section of Fine Arts - a division of the U.S. Department of Treasury - commissioned over 1100 murals for the nation's Post Offices. Through artistic competitions and assignments, Oklahoma communities received thirty-one of these murals to adorn local Post Office buildings. Few scholarly articles exist on Oklahoma's Post Office murals. The previous research on Post Office murals has focused on the 'cultural tastes' of local communities, southern culture, and as forms of 'democratic art' negotiated by artists, local communities, and the Department of Treasury. As a form of government-sponsored visual rhetoric, this paper focuses on Oklahoma's Post Office murals and the native and non-native muralists' depiction of American Indian images. We argue these murals represent acts of confrontation and resistance and need to be interpreted against the backdrop of the Great Depression and the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. In conclusion, these murals represent an emerging Oklahoma identity focused on transitions in land use and expansion in Oklahoma Territory (western Oklahoma), and American Indian self-governance and cultural renewal in Indian Territory (eastern Oklahoma).

Sharmila Lodhia, Santa Clara University
Beyond Rescue-Reframing Advocacy and Intervention in the Women's Studies Classroom
The victim/rescue binary persists with tremendous power despite years of feminist and post-colonial critique. Books like Nicholas Kristof and Sheryl WuDunn's Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Opportunity for Women Worldwide have remained on the national bestseller list for weeks. What interests me are the ethics and politics behind the embrace of this text and how its seductive narrative informs the kind of humanitarian interventions most often embraced by the Global North. For me this text and its framing are a means by which to begin a larger conversation about the ethics of transnational collaboration and cross-border activism that I find increasingly relevant in the women's and gender studies classroom. I do not want students leaving my courses feeling paralyzed by the fact that any and all forms of global activism may be tainted by colonialist or neoliberal motives. At the same time the limited models of advocacy and intervention that are made available within the institutional setting often feel incomplete. The goal of this presentation is not simply to destabilize concepts like "rescue" and "social justice" but also to provide some concrete resources and strategies for reframing discussions about global advocacy and its inherent contradictions and complexities so that students can begin to identify for themselves why some interventions can hinder rather than advance women's rights.

Jason Slavin, San Francisco State University
Subverting the Suburban Mystique in Joyce Carol Oates' "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?"
The suburban ideal has helped to form the American landscape. The concept of the suburban ideal is a simple one: a single wage earning family, supported by a working patriarch, living in a privately owned home within a homogenous community that has easy access to the city or city-like amenities. The most powerful incarnation of this culturally created narrative took hold in the1950s, when magazines, journals, television, and fiction were created promoting the idea of suburban living. Joyce Carol Oates' often-discussed "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" explores the detrimental concepts attached to the suburban ideal, and the violence of revolting against that ideal. Though criticism on the story often focuses on the demon-like Arnold Friend or the American mythos contained within the story, reading the story within the context of the suburban ideal reveals startling commentary about the suburban ideal and the place of a generation of women within the suburb. Indeed, using the suburban ideal as a lens may transform the encounter that the protagonist, Connie, has with Arnold Friend into something more than physical violence and mortal danger.

Carlyn Ferrari, University of Massachusetts Amherst
Masks in Mirrors: A Psychoanalytic Reading of Masking and Passing in The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man
In this paper, I apply Lacanian psychoanalytic theory to the phenomenon of racial "passing" and also locate "passing" within the African American literary tradition of "masking." I offer a new theoretical framework for interpreting and analyzing passing figures and argue that masking and passing are the result of the black individual's inability to achieve full subjectivity and reflect an inconclusive, displaced identity. I argue that through masking and passing individuals metaphorically attempt to repair a fractured identity and strive to represent a uniform subject. I apply this framework to the unnamed protagonist in The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man and argue that for the black child, the sequence from the "specular I" to the "social I" is interrupted and reversed because the black child comes into the world already inscribed as an "other" and is not granted the opportunity to conceive of himself/herself as a separate entity in the world. I argue that what we may deduce from the character of the Ex-Colored Man is that he is not simply on a quest for a preferred racial identity of "whiteness"; he is on a quest for a stable identity, one that allows him to be a unified whole.

Annie Loechle, James Larner, Marian University
Beyond Good and Evil: Encountering Darkness in the Works of Picasso and Stravinsky
Picasso and Stravinsky never hesitated to delve into what Carl Jung called "the shadow," that portion of the persona that many find distasteful, inappropriate, and frightening. People often want to deny the existence of a "shadow," and yet according to Jung, "everyone carries a shadow." In the anxious world of the early 20th century, the artists Igor Stravinsky and Pablo Picasso embraced their "shadows," allowing them to explore the uneasy space beyond the binary of good and evil and use an encounter with darkness to nourish their creativity. This exploration is especially evident in work that references the commedia dell'arte. Our paper will investigate the biographies of these two artists as well as the prevalence and meaning of commedia dell'arte characters in their respective oeuvres, which ultimately culminated in their collaboration on Pulcinella in 1919.

Chunhui Peng, Santa Clara University
Identity and Intertextuality in Zhang Hanzhi's Memoirs
In the 1990s, Zhang Hanzhi published several memoirs detailing her eventful life as Mao's English teacher, a leading figure in the Foreign Ministry in the 1970s, and later on the Foreign Minister's new wife. Upon release, her books immediately captured public attention and became bestsellers. Over the years, a few writings provide counter narratives about her life, especially the couple's collaboration with Mao's notorious wife Jiang Qing. These criticisms implicitly question the validity of Zhang's writings as well as her personal integrity.
           My paper suggests that we go beyond the binaries of true or false and instead consider Zhang's writings in the framework of intertextuality. That is to say, her books were written in close dialogues with and under the constant constraints of various claims and cultural conventions. It argues that the current memory space creates a rigid line between the noble and the treacherous, victims and perpetrators and does not allow for a nuanced understanding of identities and responsibilities during political purges. By doing so, it highlights the dilemma in writing about personal experiences of the turbulent 1970s.

Therese Tomaszek, Davenport University
Rebecca Harding Davis: Relentless Advocate or Reluctant Feminist?
Rebecca Harding Davis is a paradoxical figure in American literature. Throughout a long career, her essays consistently argued for fair wages and work hours for women and equity in job opportunities. Then how is one to understand this woman whose essays and stories raised awareness of such issues as financial independence, opportunity, and education for women but who, at the same time, never marched for women's rights nor joined a women's organization? Why did Davis's essays give voice to the everyday needs of women who could not speak for themselves when she herself did not participate in the women's rights movement? This paper will explore how Davis's writings exposed the limitations of a movement that was predominantly led by middle-class women while addressing the harsh realities of everyday life for working-class women, the lack of opportunities among jobs historically held by men, and a call for local solutions in the marketplace.

Teboho Makalima, University of Victoria
"It's Funny Because It's [Crude]": Humour Theory and 'Donjuanismo' on the Spanish Stage of the Seventeenth Century
It would seem counter-intuitive to revel in the humourous aspects of an otherwise disquieting subject - that of erotic impropriety. Nevertheless, something may be said of the comical pleasures derived either from acting on deviant inclinations (as with the 'Don Juan' archetype of Golden-Age Spanish theatre) or from bearing witness to misfortunes or misdeeds (a role reserved, perhaps, for a theatre audience). Relying principally on the traditional theories of 'superiority', 'incongruity', and 'relief', this presentation examines the degree to which humour in the 'Don Juanesque' plays of seventeenth-century Spain may be deemed appropriate or reprehensible.
           Analyses of two representative plays - Tirso de Molina's 'El burlador de Sevilla' ('The Trickster of Seville') and María de Zayas's 'La traición en la amistad' ('Betrayal in Friendship') - offer proof (which might then warrant reproof) that while humour can be associated with innocence and levity, it is far from strictly exemplifying virtue. Levels of comedic insolence in these plays reveal that laughter may indeed be the best medicine, but at what moral cost? Beyond the human desire and need for mirth lie complexities related to epistemology and conscience, particularly when humour meets wayward seduction.

Doré Ripley, California State University East Bay
Blurring the Binary: Watchmen's noir anti-hero

In the classic graphic novel, Watchmen, the angst-driven anti-hero, Rorschach, breaks a few fingers as he navigates the political landscape where man-made disaster creates the opportunity for social redemption. Psychosis seethes below the surface of a corrupt city as aging crime fighters come to terms with their own mortality and morality. Rorschach's belief in moral absolutism undermines his mental stability and credibility while forcing the other Watchmen to face the truth and their bankrupt ideals.
           Written fifteen years before 9/11, this near-future New York is decimated by a psychic event where millions are killed, catalyzing solidarity across the globe while bringing the world one step closer to New World Order. But Rorschach, unwilling to compromise his ideals, is determined to expose the truth, a truth that ultimately leads to his annihilation. In spite of this unwavering compromise between right and wrong, Rorschach displays the characteristics of a noir hero: skeptical, brooding, psychologically compromised, compulsive, intimidating and insecure. He narrates The Watchmen through a labyrinth of flashbacks that extends the line between good and evil, black and white, a maze that ultimately leads to a gradation of morality whose center shifts like the blurring inkblots on Rorschach's mask.

Raquel Chiquillo, University of Houston-Downtown
Moving Towards a Multifaceted Understanding of Central American Poetry
Twentieth-Century and Contemporary Central American Poetry is often described in binary terms, one of the most common being lyrical poetry vs. politically committed poetry, which often enough becomes synonymous with good poetry vs. bad poetry. The effect of this binary mindset is disastrous to the study of Central American poetry, for it ignores the multiplicity of poetic expression found within the work of most Central American poets. What to do, for example, with the Salvadoran poet Roque Dalton? Dalton was a well-known Marxist committed poet, yet his poetic language is not always simple and direct. He also wrote lyrical poems that did not have politics at their core. His work dos not fit easily into a binary system of classification and analysis. Neither does the work of David Escobar Galindo (El Salvador), Ernesto Cardenal (Nicaragua), Ana Istarú (Costa Rica) or Claribel Alegría (Nicaragua). During this session I will suggest a new schema for analyzing Central American poetry that takes into account the different facets of a poet's work and will put it to the test by using it to classify and briefly analyze poems by Dalton, Escobar Galindo, Cardenal, Istarú and Alegría.

Jocelyn Chapman, Karen McClendon, Creative Systemic Studies, University of Louisiana at Monroe
Reimagining Creativity: A Systemic View of the Creative/Not Creative Dichotomy
Presented with the dichotomy of creative/not creative, people tend to know immediately whether they are/are not. Are you? The question is nonsensical and a binary response is, too. We must reframe the question if we want meaningful responses. How can we repudiate the notion that creativity is something one does/does not have? Inspired by creativity researchers, we explore what happens when the question becomes Where is creativity? We continue by presenting several ways systemic awareness of creativity improves our conceptualization of creativity. We show how the lone genius myth permeates society, blinding us to how very social creativity often is. We propose ways of developing a "creative attitude" that involves openness to experience, tolerance of ambiguity, complexity of outlook and independence of judgment. Furthermore, reframing creativity as a process, rather than a quality, enables a transdisciplinary appreciation for the active creative process of bringing forth meaning, knowledge, self, and engagement with the world.

Joshua Horowitz, Dominican University
Examining the Genealogy of Binaries and Exploring Hybridity or "To be or not to be in a world of binaries"
One result of the "cultural turn" has been to force historians to rethink some of the basic categories we use to organize our research: rather than taking for granted the naturalness of binaries (such as "West" and "Non-West" or "tradition" and "modernity" or "colonizer" and "colonized" among many other possibilities) historians now tend to examine the ways that those binaries are created, circulated and maintained. Though there have been some gains to this approach, there have also been limits. Subsequently, this paper argues for historical research that explores concepts of hybridity and subjectivity to analyze cultural historical phenomena that binary models confine to predetermined structures.

Aoife Prendergast, Institute of Technology, Blanchardstown, Dublin, Ireland
Beyond the Binary: Multiple Identities in Practice Education, An Irish Perspective
This presentation will contribute to the identification and development of the core identities in social care practice education in Ireland. It aims to clarify an appropriate model of supervision in practice education. Professionalization has emerged onto the agenda for policy-makers in the Irish social care field. Much of the debate and discussion on the topic is teleological: it is generally assumed that a) social care practice will 'eventually' become a 'professional' activity and b) that this is a good thing. In a sense the question of 'what is a profession?' has been bracketed and the discussion over 'what type of profession should it be?' has begun to take over. Inevitably, however, the two questions are inextricably linked. The literature has identified a number of barriers to the emergence of professionalization in social care in Ireland. This has included a confusion in both professional and academic identities. However, there has been limited progress since 2005. Much is known about the purpose of practice educators, but how their role is implemented is subject to conflicting expectations, partly created by the structure in which they work. Collaboration between universities, institutes of technology and practice provide an opportunity for academia and practice settings to collaborate in a partnership to enhance practice learning and fulfil one of the main aims of the practice educator role in any contemporary setting: to narrow the theory-practice gap. However tensions and conflict will exist. Perhaps it should not be surprising that the lack of robust and generally agreed articulation of what constitutes professional practice in the first place has resulted in the absence of a body of literature and the development of appropriate academic identity for practice educators in contemporary social care practice in Ireland

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