2014 Conference Program

Feb. 27 to March 1, 2014 - Washington, D.C.

Humane, Inhumane, Human

2014 Conference Program

Questions may be directed to Marcia Green at mgreen@sfsu.edu.

Corrections can be directed to dore.ripley@gmail.com.

Wednesday, February 26 - 3:00 - 6:00 PM

HERA Board Meeting - Fairfax Suite


Thursday, February 27 - 8:30 AM - 7:30 PM

Session I - 8:30-9:45 AM

1. Artistic Representations and Transitions - Churchill Room
Chair: Janalee Emmer

The Changing Face of Violence in Painting: 19th-20th centuries,
Zuhre Indirkas, Istanbul University

Marie Bashkirtseff: Masquerade and the Search for Self,
Janalee Emmer, Ohio Wesleyan University

2. Pedagogical Approaches and Applications - Hunt Room
Chair: James Moore

Reviving and Enriching Humanities Classes with an Authentic Research Approach,
Lillian Mina, Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Living the Questions: Using Inquiry-Based Approached in Online Humanities Courses,
Eric Kyle, College of Saint Mary, Omaha, Nebraska

The Creative Impulse: Teaching History via The Fine Art,
James Moore, Cleveland State University

3. Human and Divine Styles and Expressions - Whitehall Room
Chair: Robert Goebel

Styles of Community in the Sermons of Lancelot Andrewes,
Emily Alianello, Catholic University of America

The Provo Tabernacle: from Public to Private,
Kim Abunuwara, Utah Valley University

Play: Humanized, Humanizing, and a Wee Bit More,
Robert Goebel, James Madison University

4. Medicine, Health, and Health Care - Whitehall Room
Chair: Lisa Graley

Teaching Medical Humanities to Undergraduates,
Lisa Shugoll, University of Louisville

Invisible and Visible Humans: Inhumane and Humane Doctoring in Medicine and Disease Texts,
Lisa Graley, University of Louisiana at Lafayette


Thursday, February 27

Session II - 9:45-11:00 AM

5. In Search of the Human: Beginnings and Medical Negotiations - Churchill Room
Chair: Amanda Bevers

When Life Begins: A Brief History of the Fetus and the Person,
Tony Lack, Potomac State College of WVU

Eric Gill and Jacob Epstein: Carving the Way to a Masculine (Pro)creation,
Antonia Dapena-Tretter, The Kreeger Museum

Of Life and Limb: Negotiating the Humane and Inhumane in Civil War Medicine,
Amanda Bevers, University of California, San Diego

6. Humanistic Research and Literacies - Hunt Room
Chair: Richard Emanuel and Siu Challons-Lipton

Humanizing the Humanities,
Carrie Murray, Pitt Community College

Taking a New Look at Visual Literacy: A Humane Approach,
Richard Emanuel and Siu Challons-Lipton, Queens University of Charlott

7. Studies in Modern Drama - Whitehall Room
Chair: Jim Bell

Albee's The Goat and the Loneliness of Difference,
Kristin Lucas, Nipissing University

O'Neill's Existential Man, Distinguished or Extinguished,
Michael Sollars, Texas Southern University

Ibsen's Dramaturgy of Gender,
James Bell, Grand Valley State University

8. Getting to "The Heart of the Matter": A Case for the Humanities and Social Sciences in Education and Research - Salon
Chair: Therese Tomaszek

Colleen Coughlin, Davenport University, Grand Rapids, MI

Neil Shephard, Davenport University, Grand Rapids, MI

Therese Tomaszek, Davenport University, Grand Rapids, MI


Thursday, February 27

BREAK - 11:00-11:15 AM

Session III - 11:15 AM-12:30 PM

9. Humane and Inhumane Anxieties of Influence in Art, Philosophy, and Social Identity - Churchill Room
Chair: Andrew Golden

The Dehumanization of Privileged Identities: What Happens After Recognition,
Ashley Karcher, Loyola University, Chicago

Deranged Theatrics: On Treating Animals Humanely,
Jake Nabasny, Loyola University, Chicago

Tu m': a Pataphysical Graveyard for Painting,
Andrew Golden, University of Louisville

10. Writing Pedagogies: Humanistic Approaches - Hunt Room
Chair: Kevin Henderson

Writers Can Dance: A Multi-Disciplinary Process for Guiding Student Writing,
Roberta D'Alois (robertad@mail.sfsu.edu), San Francisco State University; Holy Names University

Teaching after Trayvon,
Juan Reyes, The University of Alabama

Rethinking Creative Writing's Role in the Humanities: An Argument for an Interdisciplinary Emotion-Centered Approach to Pedagogy,
Kevin Henderson, Drury University

11. Uncanny Psychologies of the Human - Whitehall Room
Chair: Shawn Tucker

You Can't Stop Me from Talking: The Re-appropriation of Castration Anxiety in The Woman Warrior,
Alicia Barnett, San Francisco State University

Uncanny Strangers,
Robert Beghetto, York University

Sigmund Freud and Brené Brown in Zombieland,
Shawn Tucker, Elon University

12. The New Game in Town: Video Gaming as an emerging Literary Form and the Challenges of Digital Literacy - Salon
Chair: Jane Collins

Dan Rubado, Pace University

Jane Collins, Pace University


Thursday, February 27

LUNCH (on your own) - 12:30-1:15 PM

Session IV - 1:15-2:30 PM

13. Art, History, and Human Memory - Churchill Room
Chair: Jennifer Fraley

Art Propaganda Art,
Susan Baker, University of Houston-Downtown

Roman Art History and Humanitarian Action,
Marice Rose, Fairfield University

Monuments, Memorials, and Memory: The Role of the Artist as the Interpreter of Collected Consciousness,
Jennifer Fraley, University of Louisville

14. Academic Cultures: Disciplines, Requirements, and Needs Assessment - Hunt Room
Chair: Brianna Grantham

Obituary for a University Requirement,
Larry Burton, James Madison University

Campus Climate and Needs Assessment of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Students at Eastern Illinois University,
James Ochwa-Echel, Eastern Illinois University

The Hunger Games in English Composition,
Brianna Grantham, University of the Virgin Islands, University of Birmingham

15. The Human Spirit in Classical Literature and in Shakespeare - Whitehall Room
Chair: Cecilia Peek

Prospero the Wise: Resolving Confusion in The Tempest,
Britney Broyles, University of Louisville

Wise on Their Own Sight: Going Back to Euthyphro for Yet Another Look,
Scott Hammond, James Madison University

Rejecting Paradise: The Human Impulse to Strive in Homer's Odyssey
Cecilia Peek, Brigham Young University

16. Finding the Human in the Inhuman - Salon
Chair: Sarah Kyle

Crossing the Divide between Human and Divine in Ovid's Metamorphoses,
Margaret Musgrove, University of Central Oklahoma

The Art of Turning Human,
Scott Samuelson, Kirkwood Community College, IA

The Monstrous and the Marvelous: Ovid's Metamorphoses at Bomarzo,
Sarah Kyle, University of Central Oklahoma


Thursday, February 27

Session V - 2:30-3:45 PM

17. Identities and Madness - Churchill Room
Chair: Shannon McCraw

Regulating the R Word in the Public Sphere: Native American Imagery, Sports Mascots, and Spatial Identity,
Robert Wonnett, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs

The Politics of Madness,
Jon-David Settell, San Francisco State University

Shaping Public Opinion: The Chickasaw Nation and Choctaw Nation's Use of a Web-Based Video Channel,
Shannon McCraw, Southeastern Oklahoma State University

18. Philosophical-Literary Dialogues - Hunt Room
Chair: Derek Bobella

Gabriel Marcel's Phenomenological Approach to Literature,
Annette Allen, University of Louisville

Coetzeeian Dialogue: A Thank You Note from Philosophy,
Eli Kramer, Illinois University, Carbondale

Inhumane Identities in Marxist Literary Theory,
Derek Bobella, DePaul University

19. Social and Cultural Memory: Changes, Transmissions, and Neglect - Whitehall Room
Chair: Erin McCoy

Irish Dance: The Adjudicated Cultural Memory,
Erica Burgin, Independent Scholar

The Process of Tradition: Current Trends in Appalachian Clogging,
Amy Slade, George Mason University

A Neglected Minority: Latin American Experiences and the Vietnam War,
Erin McCoy, University of South Carolina, Beaufort

20. The Rake's Progress: Human, All Too Human - Salon
Chair: James Larner

Annie Loechle, Marian University

James Larner, Marian University


Thursday, February 27

BREAK - 3:45-4:00 PM

Session VI - 4:00- 5:15 PM

21. Art and Visualization - Churchill Room
Chair: Cara Tomlinson

The Artist's Eye and The Mystic's Eye: An Expressionist Philosophy of Art for Japanese Artists and Mystics,
Brandon Harwood, University of Louisville

What the Artist Saw: Degas's The Tub (1886),
William Folkestad, Department of Art CSU-Pueblo

Making Objects: Practicing the Human/e and Inhuman/e,
Cara Tomlinson, Lewis and Clark College, Portland

22. Innovative Interdisciplinary Pedagogies - Hunt Room
Chair: Barry Peterson

Bringing Theory to Life: Experiments in Religious Studies Education,
Christopher Born, The Catholic University of America

I Want to Change the World No Longer: A Peace Scholar's Confession,
Barry Peterson, University of Nevada, Reno

23. Photography - Whitehall Room
Chair: Lauren Tocci

Policing the Image: Photography, Visual Criminology and the Boston Marathon Bombing,
Thomas Stubblefield and Tammi Arford, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth

Sleeping Angels: The Resurgence of Victorian "Memento Mori" Photography in Memorializing Contemporary Infant Death,
Amy Tudor, Bellarmine University

Through the Eyes of the Camera,
Lauren Tocci, Kutztown University

24. Readings: Fiction, Poetry, and 10-Minute Plays - Salon
Chair: James Bell

Interlude Two: The Story of Fernando Alberto Javier de los don Miguel by Tawnya Alberta Brown,
Ivan Rodden IV, Christopher Newport University

Box of Blue Horses: A Poetry Reading,
Lisa Graley, University of Louisiana at Lafayette

James Bell, Grand Valley State University


Thursday, February 27

Session VII- 5:30- 6:30 PM

25. New Humanistic Approaches to Literature - Churchill
Chair: Trevor Martinson

Reason, Conscience, and the Holy Spirit in Paradise Lost and De Doctriana Christiana,
Clay Greene, University of Alabama

(Inter)Facing (In)Humanity,
Holly Allen, San Francisco State University

Joseph Andrews' Proleptic Position in Postmodern Literature,
Trevor Martinson, Eastern Illinois University

26. Humanism in Interdisciplinary Social Contexts: Social Relevance and Social Phenomena - Hunt Room
Chair: Elizabeth Badolato

Socially Responsible Architecture: Humanity Revisited,
Kate O'Connor, Marywood University

Using Evolution to Dehumanize Criminals and Handicapped: Conrad's Response to the Growth of Social Darwinism,
Elizabeth Badolato, St. John's University

27. A Look at Black Feminist Resistance While Focusing on African American Women's Orality and American Beauty through the Lens of History, Literature, and Sociological Feminist Theory - Whitehall Room
Chair: Dia Samuel

Speaking of Resistence...":Locating Orality in Speaking Lives, Authoring Texts and Women's Contemporary Oral Histories,
Portia Hopkins, Lee College

A Feminist Sociological Analysis of Speaking Lives, Authoring Texts,
Maria Garcia, Lee College

"...that one true beauty ideal in the eyes of the invisible Hagar,"
Dia Samuel, Lee College


Thursday, February 27

Session VIII

6:30 to 7:30 PM

28. Featured Reading Room: TBA

Okey Ndibe, Brown University

Reading from his novel
Foreign Gods, Inc.
(2014, Soho Press)


Friday, February 28 - 8:30 AM - 6:30 PM

7:30 PM - 9:00 PM - Keynote Address - Ballroom

9:00 PM - 11:00 PM - Open Reception - Ballroom


Session IX - 8:30 - 9:45 AM

29. Cross-Cultural and Gender Currents: Immigrants, the Dispossessed and Indigenous Peoples - Churchill
Room Chair: Amanda Morris

Dispossessed and Divided: The Woman's Experience in Civil War Kentucky, 1861-1865,
Andrea Watkins, Northern Kentucky University

Indians, Squaws, and Papouses: British Women's Writings about Aboriginals in 1830's Upper Canada,
Sara McCleary, Laurentian University

Spiritual Spanking: Native American Stand-Up Comedy in the 21st Century,
Amanda Morris, Kutztown University of Pennsylvania

30. Ethics in Interdisciplinary Contexts - Hunt Room
Chair: Teshome Tadessse

The Bridge Between Ethical Theory and Engineering,
Gwendolyn Dolske, California Polytech University

A Modest Proposal for Bad Debt,
Kurt Blankschaen, University of Kansas

Could 'poverty of policy' rather than 'culture of poverty' be explored for assessing single mothers' problems in the U.S.,
Teshome Tadesse, South Carolina State University

31. Spiritual Visions and Applications - Whitehall Room
Chair: Elizabeth Gunn

Transculturization, Shamanic Visionary Power and the Eclipse of the Other in Luis Alberto Lamata's Jerico,
Javier Valiente, Johns Hopkins University

The Columbus Mentality: A Look Into Inhumane Representation of Two-Spirit People Across the Humanities,
Meghan Sills, University of Maine, Orano

Creative Nonfiction is Everything: Postmodernism, Groundlessness and the Dual Portrait,
Elizabeth Gunn, Morgan State University

32. Making the Inhumane Human: The 21st Century Online Classroom and the Humanities - Salon
Chair: Lee Ann Westman

DeAnna Varela, University of Texas at El Paso

Christina Funkhouser, University of Texas at El Paso

Lee Ann Westman, University of Texas at El Paso


Friday, February 28

Session X- 9:45-11:00 AM

33. Latin American Humanities - Churchill Room
Chair: Raquel Chiquillo

"The Nostalgia of a Lost Paradise": Julio Cortázar, Surrealism, and Argentina's Inescapable Peronist Past,
Thomas Brinkerhoff, University of Pennsylvania

Internal Models of Ambivalent Community in Sandra Cisneros' Caramelo,
Lauren Mendoza, San Francisco State University

In Neruda's Footsteps: Hypocrisy, Revulsion and What It Means to be Human,
Raquel Chiquillo, University of Houston-Downtown

34. Race, Ethnicity, Language: Innovative Approaches to Humanistic Pedagogy Hunt Room
Chair: Maggie Labinski

The Variable Grammar of the Spanish Subjunctive in Second-Generation Bilinguals in New York City,
Kevin Bookhamer, The Graduate Center, CUNY

Encouraging Students to Develop Critical Responses to ESL Reading Textbooks,
Jihyun Nam, Campbellsville University

Safe for Whom? Race, Ethnicity, and the In/Humanity of 'Safe Spaces',
Maggie Labinski, Stonehill College

35. Mass Culture, Gender Culture, and Border Culture: Interpretive Readings - Whitehall Room
Chair: Sarita Cannon

Shut Up and Listen: A Rhetorical Anger of Invention and Invitation,
Ruth Osorio, University of Maryland, College Park

All Too Human: Hank Quinlan as Tragic Villain and Failed Storyteller in Orson Welles' Touch of Evil,
Ezekiel Crago, San Francisco State University

Coppertone Babies and Sun-Maid Girls: Consumer Culture in Under the Feet of Jesus,
Sarita Cannon, San Francisco State University

36. Women's Oral Histories as Part of Puerto Rico's Emerging Ecopedegogy - Salon
Chair: Roxanna Donnench-Cruz

Roxanna Domenech-Cruz, Universidad Metropolitana, Puerto Rico

Carlos A. Muniz-Osoria, Universidad del Sagrado Corazón, Puerto Rico


Friday, February 28

BREAK - 11:00-11:15 AM

Session XI - 11:15 AM - 12:30 PM

37. Middle Eastern Voices and Expressions - Churchill Room
Chair: Richard Turnbull

Twitter, Inhumanity and the Representations of the Arab Spring,
Valerie Kesner-Greenberg, University of the Incarnate Word

Book-Burning and Book-Bombing in Baghdad: Artists Respond,
Richard Turnbull, Fashion Institute of Technology

38. Musical Contexts - Hunt Room
Chair: Catherine Hawkes

Making Her Self: Pauline Viardot's Conscious Identity-Creation Through her Orpheus Scrapbook of 1859-1861,
Rebecca Fairbank, Independent Scholar

Imaging the "Other" in Early 20th Century American Sheet Music,
Paul Krejci, University of Alaska, Fairbanks

A Human Approach to "World Music,"
Catherine Hawkes, Roger Williams University

39. Representing the Human Condition - Whitehall Room
Chair: Dore' Ripley

"Without the Law, It's All Darkness": The Human Condition in Woody Allen's Crimes and Misdemeanors
Joana Owens, Jacksonville University

The Lady from Shanghai: Commodity, Desire, and a Re-Working of the Noir Standard,
Austin Pidgeon, San Francisco State University

Humanity's Entrepreneurial Other Half in Bartholomew Fair,
Doré Ripley, Diabo Valley College, California State University, East Bay

40. Workshop: Making History Visible: Design Thinking in Action - Salon
Chair: Brian Slawson

Brian Slawson, University of Florida, School of Art and Art History


Friday, February 28

LUNCH 12:30-1:15 PM (on your own)

Session XII - 1:15-2:30 PM

41. Old and New World Voices: Connections and Disconnections - Churchill Room
Chair: Maria Giulia Genghini

By Divine Providence: The Voices of Two African-American Missionaries in Liberia, 1859-1869,
Cheryl Renee Gooch, The Lincoln University

La voz cubana: Interviews with Cubans trying to "resolver",
Beth Stapleton, Mississippi College

The Jesuit Reductions of Paraguay: A Bridge between Europe and the New World,
Maria Giulia Genghini, University of Notre Dame

42. Human and Inhuman Places and Spaces - Hunt Room
Chair: Edmund Cueva

Maintaining Humanity during the Holocaust: Gender, Jewishness, and Family in the Testimony of Celia L,
Amy Smith, Yale University

The Larger Implications of Violence Survivors as Superheroines,
Eileen Harney, University of Alaska, Fairbanks

Latin in an Amsterdam Annex,
Edmund Cueva, University of Houston-Downtown

43. Modern Art: Artists and Issues - Whitehall Room
Chair: Geoffrey M. Faust

The Pop Apocalyptic: Pop Art and the Atomic Bomb,
Natalie Phillips, Ball State University

The Reception of Violence or the Violence of Reception?: The Minotaur in Picasso's Vollard Suite,
Alicia Livingstone, Balliol College, University of Oxford

Is Beauty in the Mind of the (all too Human) Beholder? The Case of Jackson Pollock,
Geoffrey M. Faust, Independent Scholar

44. Migration as a Lens: Visual Representations of the Humane, Inhumane, Human - Salon
Chair: Mary Brodnax

"Goodbye Deutschland - Hello, Texas": The Curious Motivations of 21st-Century German Emigrants,
Hans Rudolf Nollert, University of Central Oklahoma

The Absent Father: Representation of the Missing Father Figure in Contemporary Mexican Immigration Cinema,
Guillermo Martinez-Sotelo, University of Central Oklahoma

The Pub and the Immigrant in British Film,
Mary Brodnax, University of Central Oklahoma


Friday, February 28

Session XIII - 2:30 - 3:45 PM

45. Families and Multi-Cultural Identities - Churchill Room
Chair: Wynn Yarbrough

"The Bold but Naïve Rebel": The Modern Challenge to the Traditional Agrarian Community,
Xiao Fang Huang, The Catholic University of America

Multicultural Perspectives in the Academic Setting,
Orellana Johnson, San Francisco State University

Work and Family Identity in African American Children's Poetry,
Wynn Yarbrough, University of the District of Columbia

46. Contemporary Literary Representations - Hunt Room
Chair: Jason Slavin

Masculinity and the End of Humanity in The Elementary Particles,
Christopher Moller, University of Arizona

Authority, Knowledge and (in)humanity in David Foster Wallace's Infinite Jest,
Alessandra Tedesco, University of Bologna, IT

The Breakdown of Suburban Ideologies in Thomas Berger's Neighbors,
Jason Slavin, San Francisco State University

47. Innovative Research and Pedagogy: In The Hunger Games and in Storytelling for Social Justice- Whitehall Room
Chair: Rachel Mercuri

Katniss Everdeen and Ree Dolly: Girls of Steel in Dystopian Worlds,
Pamela Thomas, Wingate University

The Social Science Career Pathway: A Conduit to Culturally Relevant Pedagogy and Post-Secondary Achievement,
Janiece Mackey, University of Colorado

Katniss's Humanity in the "Hunger Games": What's Love got to do with It?,
Rachel Mercuri, Scranton High School

48. Custom Fit for the Ages: Refashioning Roman Realities, Legends, and Legacies - Salon
Chair: Renee Schlueter

Catholicism's Triumph over Paganism: Constantine the Great and Imperium,
Jessica A. Sheetz-Nguyen, University of Central Oklahoma

Human, Hero, and God: Wearing the Toga in 18th and 19th Century America,
Ronald J. Weber, University of Texas at El Paso

Unsullied by Roman Catholic "Idolatry," "Indolence," and "Dirt"-The Pure Protestant Woman's Encounter with Rome in the Nineteenth Century,
Renee Schlueter, Kirkwood Community College


Friday, February 28

BREAK - 3:45-4:00 PM

Session XIV - 4:00- 5:15 PM

49. New Interpretive Readings - Churchill Room
Chair: Geoffrey Green

Isaac's Terror: On Sacrificability and Substitution,
Holly Moore, Luther College

Veil of Guilt-A new interpretation of Hawthorne's "The Ministers Black Veil"
Robert Karockai, Clark University

"If life can be lived so long and come out this way, like rubbish, then something was horrible": Ironic Representations of the Humane, the Inhumane, and Humanity in Abraham Polonsky's film noir, Force of Evil (1948),
Geoffrey Green, San Francisco State University

50. Establishing Multiple Perspectives: Issues and Expressions in Collaborative History and Gender - Hunt Room
Chair: Laura Moorhead

Between Mikolka's Mare and the Hottentot Venus: Gender and Species Relationships in the Social Creations of Life and Death,
Daniel Kirjner, Montana State University/ Universidade de Brasília

Gender Stereotypes in Advertising: Just How Far Have We Come?,
Jennifer Harrison and Michael Hinton-Riley, Kaplan University

Recasting the Textbook as a Collaborative Collection of Historical Narratives and Cultural Heritage Through Primary Documents, Humanistic Methods, and Interactive, Touch-based Devices,
Laura Moorhead, Stanford University

51. The Transnational Camera: Modernism, Urban Conflict, and Political Engagement in the Interwar Era - Salon
Chair: Julia Rawa-White

Illuminated Darkness: Film and Political Engagement in the Interwar Era,
Patricia Matchette, St. Petersburg College

The Transnational Camera: Modernism, Urban Conflict, and Political Engagement in the Interwar Era,
Julia Rawa-White, St. Petersburg College

52. Humanities within Popular Culture - Salon
Chair: Portia Hopkins

Kathryn Stockett's The Help: In Search of Self,
Debra Long, Lee College

Fifty Shades of Plato: Liberated/Suppressed Female Sexuality,
Saul Blair, Lee College

American Psycho, or The New Manifesto,
Cotie Klenk, Lee College

Existentialism in The Hunger Games,
Kaylon Wheeler, Lee College

Portia Hopkins, Lee College


Friday, February 28

Session XV 5:15 - 6:30 PM

53. Visualizing the Human - Churchill Room
Chair: Tiffany Hutabarat

Wearing Blackness: A Critical Inquiry into the Use of Black Leather as a Tool of Objectification in the Photography of Robert Mapplethorpe,
Alexandra Burlingame, Indiana University, Bloomington

Global Trends in the Spread of Cosmetic Surgery: A Look at Selected Countries,
Yalem Teshome, Iowa State University

The Visuals of Difference: Art, Literature, Fashion, and the Making of Identity,
Tiffany Hutabarat, University of Louisville

54. Gothic Representations - Hunt Room
Chair: Jeremy MacFarlane

"The Empire Bites Back: Attack of the Vampire in Wuthering Heights",
Leslie Ann Harper, University of Louisville

Misfits, Outcasts, and Gothic Tension in the Modern American Short Story,
Zane Johnston, San Francisco State University

Eating Like an Animal: Cannibalism and Animalism in Poe's "The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket",
Jeremy MacFarlane, Queen's University

55. Educational Adaptation - Whitehall Room
Chair: Galina Bakhtiarova

There's an App for That!: Incorporating New Technology into Art History Assignments,
Rebecka Black, University of Houston-Downtown

The Human Side of Academic Research,
Karl Krusell, Texas A&M University

Adaptation in the Digital Age: DQ Don Quijote en Barcelona and Beyond,
Galina Bakhtiarova, Western Connecticut State University

56. The Concept of the Human in John Wyndham's The Chrysalides: Puritanical Imagery, Female Agency, and Theistic Evolution - Salon
Chair: Gregory Loving

Phoebe Reeves, University of Cincinnati Clermont College

Frederic Krome, University of Cincinnati Clermont College

Gregory Loving, University of Cincinnati Clermont College


Friday, February 28

DINNER 6:30-7:30 PM (on your own)


Session XVI - 7:30-9:00 PM

57. Keynote Address: Ballroom

Keynote Speaker
Anne Midgette,
Classical Music Critic, The Washington Post, Washington, D.C.

"The Ethics of Classical Music"


9:00 PM - 11:00 PM Open Reception Ballroom


Saturday, March 1 - 8:30 AM - 12:30 PM

Closing Luncheon - 12:30 - 2 PM

Session XVII - 8:30 - 9:45 AM

58. Erotic Artistic and Literary Issues and Expressions - Churchill Room
Chair: Sharon Orleans Lawrence

Penetrating Art: Creative Interventions in the Age of Internet Porn,
Wendy Chase, Edison State College

Fifty Shades of Romance: An Analysis of a Best Selling the Erotic Romance, "Fifty Shades of Grey Trilogy" by E.L. James,
Rebecca Caissie, Acadia University

Sexually Explicit Feminist Art: Politics and Pornography
Sharon Orleans Lawrence, American University Kuwait

59. Pre-20th Century Literary Representations of Humane, Inhumane, Human - Hunt Room
Chair: John DuVal

Humanizing the Inhumanity of Nature: Famine and Plague in Adso's Miracle of Saint Mansuueetus (c.980 CE),
Conor Kostick, Nottingham University, UK

Frankenstein, Sympathy for the Creature: Humanity in the Monster versus the Savage in the Human,
Morgan Mandriota, St. Joseph's College

Glimpses of the Humane in the Song of Roland,
John DuVal, University of Arkansas

60. Cultures and Communities -Whitehall Room
Chair: Carol Stewart

In God's Kingdom?,
Rachel Miller, Arkansas State University, Heritage Studies PhD Program

Service Learning and Literary Studies: A Pedagogical History,
Roberta Rosenberg, Christopher Newport University

If This Be Magic: Audience Expectations, Wabi-Sabi Performance, and the Men of Shakespeare Behind Bars,
Carol Stewart, Bellarmine University

61. Terra Infirma: Creative Play for Professors - Salon
Chair: Terri Hasseler

Sandra Enos, Bryant University

Janet Dean, Bryant University

Mary LaMarca, Bryant University

Terri Hasseler, Bryant University


Saturday, March 1

Session XVIII - 9:45-11:00 AM

62. Musical Lives, Musical Themes: Investigations and Discoveries - Churchill Room
Chair: Stephen Husarik

Humane Learning and Actuarial Science: Miles Menander Dawson and his Unacknowledged Influence on Charles Ives,
William Grim, retired

Tolstoy's Re-Creation of the Human and the Animal in "The Kreutzer Sonata",
Laurel Schmuck, University of Southern California

Beethoven and the Baths: A Study of Human Survival,
Stephen Husarik, University of Arkansas, Fort Smith

63. Interdisciplinary Psychological Approaches - Hunt Room
Chair: Suzette Henke

Kumite Dachi: A Practical Self-Defense Against Performance Anxiety,
Mark Laughlin, Georgia Southwestern State University

The Mirror Cracked: Sarah Kane and the Habitual Gaze,
Richard St Peter, Clemson University

Virginia Woolf and the Art of the Modernist Prose Elegy,
Suzette Henke, University of Louisville

64. Teaching and Defending the Humanities: New Approaches and Research - Whitehall Room
Chair: Terry Lee

All Work and No Play: How Not to Defend the Humanities,
Brian Vescio, University of Wisconsin-Green Bay

"Go, Man of Blood!": Thomas Paine's Crisis Papers and the Elegiac Inhumane,
Scott Cleary, Iona College

Radical Pedagogy, Radical Character: Teaching to Students' Character in the Humanities,
Terry Lee, Christopher Newport University

65. Modern Theatrical Representations - Salon
Chair: David Hatch

Acting Towards Good Faith: Training the Actor in Sartrean Existential Humanity,
James Palm, The Royal Central School of Speech and Drama, London

"Love is in the err(ant)": "schadenfreude" and the Figure of Don Juan in the Theatrical Works of Modern Europe,
Teboho Makalima, University of Victoria, Canada

On the Trail of Godot,
David Hatch, University of South Carolina


Saturday, March 1

BREAK - 11:00-11:15 AM

Session XIX - 11:15 AM-12:30 PM

66. Interdisciplinary Issues of Identity: Conformity, Diversity, Misogyny - Churchill Room
Chair: Karen von Kunes

Misogyny and self-loathing; Blue of Noon by Georges Bataille and Gilles by Pierra Drieu La Rochelle,
Antoine Krieger, College of William and Mary

Lesbian or Gay Educator? Is it Safe to Reveal Your Sexual Identity in Your School?,
Steven Hooker, Arcadia University

The Rebellion of Human Spirit over the Imposition of Conformity in Milan Kundera's The Book of Laughter and Forgetting and Milos Forman's One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest,
Karen von Kunes, Yale University

67. Mass Culture and Technology: Implications, Analyses, and Technology - Hunt Room
Chair: Lisette Davies Ward

"I Am What the Gods Have Made Me": Exploring the Gamer-Avatar Relationship in God of War III,
Timurhan Vengco, San Francisco State University

Dinosaurs, Arks, and Floods: The Rhetorical Web of the Creation Museum,
Steve Watkins, Northern Kentucky University

In Defense of Reality TV: Cinderella Mythic Narratives and Gender Roles in Documentary Competitions,
Lisette Davies Ward, Claremont Graduate University

68. (In)human Spaces - Whitehall Room
Chair: Henry Sayre

(In)human Spaces: Edmund Clark's Guantanamo and the Aesthetics of Terror,
Henry Sayre, Oregon State University, Cascades

69. Monsters and Monstrosities - Salon
Chair: Jessica Cresseveur

The Monstrous Multicultural,
Melanie Hinton, Dixie State University

Myths that male Monsters: What we don't teach our students about the nature of language and how it hurts all of us,
Julia Palmer, Hampden-Sydney College

Portrait of the Artist as a Monster,
Jessica Cresseveur, University of Louisville


Saturday, March 1

70. Closing Luncheon Buffet in the Ballroom

12:30-2:00 PM



Conference Abstracts

James Palm, Acting Towards Good Faith: Training the Actor in Sartrean, Existential Humanity
I assert in this paper a mode of actor training and acting based on Jean-Paul Sartre's existential paradigm of being, freedom and authenticity; I explore the theory and practice of actor training, and acting, towards good faith. I argue that: (a) as human beings we are in bad faith; Sartre states that we are free but distract ourselves from this freedom resulting in actions that are inauthentic - bad faith, by definition, is a project we sustain in order to distract ourselves from our freedom and the possibility of authenticity. (b) The dominant forms of actor training practiced in the West require the student to indulge in bad faith; the actor is required to be and act in bad faith resulting in inauthenticity. (c) It is possible for the actor to train, and act, whilst allowing them the possibility and freedom of good faith; this is a task based approach to acting which does not rely on self-distractive techniques or practices.

James Moore, The Creative Impulse: Teaching History via The Fine Arts
The fine arts -- paintings, sculptures, photography, prints, dance, music -- are vital to a solid liberal arts education. However, the fine arts are often ignored in social studies courses throughout American K-12 education. Given that social studies is an interdisciplinary field, students need instruction in identifying, describing, and analyzing the role of the fine arts in history and the social studies. Teaching social studies via the fine arts can help students refine their critical thinking skills (symbolism, abstract thought, metaphors, and the relationship between the humanities and the social sciences. This presentation will use three pieces of Renaissance art and demonstrate their relevance to teaching history.

Thomas Brinkerhoff , The Nostalgia of a Lost Paradise: Julio Cortázar, Surrealism, and Argentina's Inescapable Peronist Past
Why have we had to invent Eden, to live submerged in the nostalgia of a lost paradise, to make up utopias, propose a future for ourselves?" -Julio Cortázar
Through the lens of surrealism, anything is possible. It allows the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality to emerge simultaneously as a way to grapple with the struggles of the modern world. In his 1968 short story "La noche boca arriba", Julio Cortázar uses a surrealist lens to expose his reader to a cultural conflict that he saw jeopardizing the future of Argentina and, more broadly, the southern hemisphere. The story's protagonist, a motorcyclist, suffers an accident and, while hospitalized, dreams he is an active participant in the Flowers War against the Mexica. As the protagonist drifts in and out of consciousness, the reader observes a relapse of Latin American culture. While the motorcyclist, an embodiment of the Latin American nation state, is comfortable in a modern word increasingly encroached upon by western culture, he cannot help but struggle with his sense of "duel heritage"-one native and one foreign. Both heritages wage an inner battle to gain control of his consciousness, but ultimately the most powerful bloodline emerges victorious and the story concludes with the protagonist staring face up at a Mexica warrior.
This project will demonstrate how Cortázar's story represents a literary interpretation of the dangers of foreign economic and cultural encroachment in Argentina, beginning with the Presidency of Arturo Frondizi (1958-1962), extending to the neoliberal economic policies of Carlos Menem (1989-1999), and continuing in the contemporary public discourse within the country. Cortázar paints foreign economic initiatives in Argentina as suppressive. Yet, he refuses to portray a romantic escape. Instead, we are left with two extremes: the embrace of western culture and its exploitation or a rejection of modernism in favor of a past nostalgia characterized by hemispheric independence, but dominated by its own barbarism.

William Grim, Humane Learning and Actuarial Science: Miles Menander Dawson and his Unacknowledged Influence on Charles Ives
Henry Cowell wrote that Charles Ives, prior to establishing his own insurance agency, studied insurance law at night school. This assertion by Cowell has previously gone unnoticed in Ives scholarship. This paper will present evidence that Ives probably studied insurance law with the polymath Miles Menander Dawson (1863-1942), an attorney as well as one of the most highly regarded actuaries of his time. Dawson was the consulting actuary for the Armstrong Committee's 1905-06 investigation into the life insurance industry, a scandal in which Ives narrowly missed becoming involved himself. As this paper will demonstrate, Dawson was a person whose path probably crossed with Ives' on an almost daily basis. Dawson was also the author of a number of books for practicing insurance agents, including Things Agents Should Know (1900), a book that reached many of the same conclusions about the selling of insurance as Ives did in The Amount to Carry (1910). Additionally Dawson was a published poet, translator from the Norwegian (whose translation of Brand received Ibsen's enthusiastic approval), and an accomplished scholar of Confucianism and Zororastrianism. Dawson and Ives also shared a passion for progressive politics and American Transcendentalism, with the Congregational/Unitarian proclivities of Ives matched by Dawson's deep involvement in the Ethical Culture Society. This paper will address those areas in which Dawson's influence appears to have had a hand in shaping Ives' aesthetic, political and managerial thinking.

Mark Laughlin, Kumite Dachi: A Practical Self-Defense Against Performance Anxiety
Performance anxiety is a natural part of the young and even seasoned performers' experience. However, the experience can be so overwhelming that it becomes crippling, and some of the greatest performers throughout history suffered from extreme performance anxiety including Martha Argerich, Maria Callas, Sergei Rachmanioff, Frederic Chopin, and Vladimir Horowitz. Evidence suggests that both biology and environment can contribute to the disorder which often arises during childhood. For performers this could be the result of a relentless teacher, an overbearing parent, and/or personal expectations of striving for the "perfect" performance. The exaggerated worries of the worst outcomes in unknown situations that typify anxiety are often accompanied by physical symptoms. These include but not limited to muscle tension, headaches, extreme sweating, and stomach cramps.
This presentation will discuss self-defense strategies and tactics against performance anxiety drawing from a wide range of techniques from the areas of sports psychology to the ancient warfare strategies of SunTzu's "The Art of War".

Wendy Chase, Penetrating Art: Creative Interventions in the Age of Internet Porn
If there is one thing that anti-porn activists, pro-sex feminists and cyber-libertarians can all agree upon, it is that the Internet has radically altered the terms of the debate about the impact of pornography on society. Since Internet porn nests within the wide and tangled branches of our larger visual culture, we cannot bracket it off into a world unto itself. This essay explores the intersection of porn, art, and popular culture in order to understand how images structure our interactions with other human beings.
Through an analysis of the art of Jeff Koons, Terrence Koh and Felix Gonzalez-Torres, this presentation strives to shed light on what kinds of artistic expression might correspond to theorist Margret Grebowicz' call for "philosophical pornography." While avant-garde art 't necessarily produce porn with a reflective demeanor, it can cultivate habits of mind that seek out the linkages between diverse experiences so that we can critically reflect on the relationships between porn, our technologically-mediated world and democratic speech to foster mindful participation in shaping our sexual culture.

Leslie Ann Harper, "The Empire Bites Back: Attack of the Vampire in Wuthering Heights"
In the nineteenth century, unrest in the British colonies and uneasiness over the morality of imperialism inspired a number of stories of reverse colonization. In some of these tales, the "Other" that threatens England takes the form of a vampire. In this paper, I argue that Wuthering Heights belongs to this tradition, as Heathcliff is a foreign vampire who thirsts for the blood of England. However, Emily Brontë offers a sympathetic portrait of this monster as a victim. In her novel, the vampire is a revolutionary figure who fights against imperial oppression. I suggest that Brontë was influenced by previous vampire stories that indicted the Spanish and Ottoman Empires for the subjugation of indigenous peoples. I argue that Brontë's sympathy for the colonized "Other" partially derives from being the daughter of an Irish immigrant, and I examine connections to Ireland and themes of revolution in her poetry as well as her novel.

Tony Lack, When Life Begins: A Brief History of the Fetus and the Person
Historical analysis of differing conceptions of the status of the fetus as a form of life. Focuses on the effects of religious, cultural, economic, and technological factors that form the basis of the boundary between what has been considered human and nonhuman. Compares ancient and medieval notions of the fetus to contemporary perspectives that revolve around the moral and political claims of the fetus as a person, with rights. Concludes with an analysis of Peter Singer's Utilitarian argument about the nonidentical relationship between biological life and personal identity.

Geoffrey Green, "If life can be lived so long and come out this way, like rubbish, then something was horrible": Ironic Representations of the Humane, the Inhumane, and Humanity in Abraham Polonsky's film noir, Force of Evil (1948)
In Abraham Polonsky's long neglected Force of Evil, characters represent ironic variations on the humane, the inhumane, and the human-all in order to express a dark allegory of human greed and corruption in the world finance system. Joe Morse, the narrator of the voice over and anti-hero of the film, is a successful corporate lawyer who has agreed to be a front for a criminal syndicate out to break the world financial combine. Joe rationalizes that what he is doing is only temporarily illegal, and is substantively identical with what politicians and bankers already practice. He reassures himself that he has only the most altruistic of intentions: helping his older brother, Leo, a small time criminal running a numbers bank, achieve something reckonable in his life. Leo, ironically, supported Joe through college, and denies himself advantages in order to help others. Leo wants to stay "honest" by preserving the simplicity of his minor criminality. Leo's humane criminality is juxtaposed against Joe's inhumane legality-and both are displayed against the truly inhumane mobsters and the truly humanistic Doris. The ending reveals-in the deepest poignancy-the cost and responsibility of what it means to be human.

Edmund Cueva, Latin in an Amsterdam Annex
This presentation will examine the learning and reading that took place in the secret annex that sheltered the Frank family from July 6, 1942 to August 4, 1944. Since Otto and Edith Frank had realized that their concealment from the German occupiers would probably be lengthy in duration, they had already made plans to keep their daughters, Anne and Margot, busy while in hiding. The Frank parents had made it very clear from the beginning of their stay in the annex that their two daughters were to keep up with their academic activities, which included for Margot "Correspondence courses in English, French and Latin, Shorthand in English, German and Dutch, Trigonometry, Solid Geometry, Mechanics, Physics, Chemistry, Algebra, Geometry, English Literature, French Literature, German Literature, Dutch Literature, Bookkeeping, Geography, Modern History, Biology, Economics…." Anne studied "Shorthand in French, English, German and Dutch, Geometry, Algebra, History, Geography, Art History, Mythology, Biology, Bible History, Dutch Literature…." Although these two lengthy lists will be briefly surveyed, this presentation will mostly focus on the correspondence course in Latin that was offered by the Leidsche Onderwijs Instelling. All the remaining evidence on the Latin correspondence course will be presented

Amy Tudor, Sleeping Angels: The Resurgence of Victorian "Memento Mori" Photography in Memorializing Contemporary Infant Deaths
The Victorian Era was marked by a cultural preoccupation with mourning as infant mortality, disease epidemics, and the first modern wars made death an ever-present part of most families' daily lives. One way of marking these deaths was with the use of photography, a technology that even in its infancy had the ability to captivate viewers with its illusion of permanence. Deceased infants and young children were common subjects for early photographers, since these images would often act as the only evidence of these individuals' existence. These so-called "Sleeping Beauty" photographs of children were often displayed proudly on the mantelpieces and walls of Victorian homes alongside images of living family members, thus giving death a fully integrated role in the lives of these families.
After the carnage and constant mourning caused by the U.S. Civil War, Americans sought to move death out of the home and out of their daily lives. Along with changes in funerary and mourning practices, "Memento Mori" ("Remember Me") photographs also became less of a common practice. Recently, however, there has been a resurgence of these photographs in hospitals in the United States, with companies such as Now I Lay Me Down to Sleep offering custom photo packages for women whose children are stillborn or who die soon after birth.
This presentation seeks to explain the resurgence of Victorian Memento Mori photography through an exploration of the liminal quality of the photograph itself, as well as through an investigation into such cultural forces as the commodification of domesticity and death denial that have contributed to a renewed fascination with these lovely and macabre images.

Javier Valiente, Transculturation, Shamanic Visionary Power and the Eclipse of the Other in Luis Alberto Lamata's JERICÓ
Produced in 1990, JERICÓ, by Venezuelan director Luis Alberto Lamata, is one of the most significant exponents of a group of motion pictures that can be called "New Historical Films of the Conquest." These cinematic works rewrite the history of the European conquest of America from a decolonial and postmodern revisionist perspective that questions the legitimacy of traditional historiography, thus giving rise to the deconstruction of the "official story." This paper will discuss the transculturation of Friar Santiago, the protagonist of the film, among the Yanomami Indians of the Amazon rainforest according to the theories of Fernando Ortiz and Silvia Spitta. It is Friar Santiago´s transcultural negotiation that turns him into a subject torn between two different cultures without fully belonging to any of them and radically alters his worldview. One of the most significant elements that accounts for this process is the Dominican friar's initiation into the shamanic rites and visions of the Yanomami, which will be studied according to Piers Vitebsky's, Mircea Eliade's and Michael Harner´s considerations on the phenomenon of shamanism. Finally, Enrique Dussel´s reflections on the conquest of America from the point of view of the ethics of alterity and its critique of Modernity will also help us to understand the eclipse of the Other by Europe at the time of the Conquest through physical, cultural and spiritual genocide and how Friar Santiago questions the Spanish imperialist project at the end of the film as a result of his transcultural experience with the Natives.

Elizabeth Badolato, Using Evolution to Dehumanize Criminals and the Handicapped: Conrad's Response to the Growth of Social Darwinism
The emergence of the theory of evolution, caused predominantly by Charles Darwin's publication of On the Origin of Species in 1859, forced Victorian society to rethink what it mean to be a man. The idea that man shares a history with animals was not simply a scientific revolution, it created a social phenomena that lead to the fear that the bold line between man and beast was disintegrating. Once of the most common fears was that man could degenerate, losing the intellect and morality that sets him above animals, and slipping back into a primitive state.
I will start this paper with a brief introduction to Darwin's work and the implications of his work that lead to degeneration. I will then shift my attention to Joseph Conrad's reaction to prominent social Darwinists in The Secret Agent. I will focus on siblings Winnie and Stevie, the two characters explicitly labeled as degenerates in the novel. Despite being labeled as degenerate, Winnie and Stevie are arguably the most sympathetic, innocent, and heroic characters in the novel. By creating degenerate, yet moral characters, Conrad contradicts the Victorian belief that men exhibiting unconventional beliefs, behaviors, or actions, are fundamentally less human than proper society

Erin McCoy, A Neglected Minority: Latin American Experiences and the Vietnam War
We Took to the Streets: Fighting for Latino Rights with the Young Lords (Miguel Melendez, Rutgers UP, 2005) and Aztlan and Viet Nam: Chicano and Chicana Experiences of the War (ed. George Mariscal, U of CA P, 1999) detail the unique role of Latin Americans within the context of America during the Vietnam War era. While the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s garners a great deal of attention in Vietnam War studies, scholars often overlook the role of, in Melendez's example, a Puerto Rican social activist who "fought the establishment and won." Anti-Vietnam War music from Puerto Rican singer Roy Brown's nueva trova album Yo Protesto! (1968) will also elevate this paper's discussion of Latino, Chicano, and Mexican-Americans' social roles in the US during the Vietnam War era of American history.

Trevor Martinson, Joseph Andrews' Proleptic Position in Postmodern Literature
In this essay I discuss the prevalence of postmodern literature traits within Henry Fielding's novel Joseph Andrews and relate the traits to contemporary postmodern literature. Fielding's novel uses elements of metafiction through the narrator's dichotomous approach of representing the book as biographical but also observing the process of the creation of the novel. There are also prevalent binary oppositions, mainly that of vice/ virtue, allowing for a deconstruction of the text, revealing an inverse relation between "rich" and "poor." The novel is further deconstructed as a pastiche of Samuel Richardson's Pamela and Colley Cibber's autobiography, effectively parodying exaggerated moralistic standards of Fielding's contemporaries. Finally, the novel's use of intertextuality is shown through Fielding's drawing upon the Bible, Greek and Roman mythology, and then-contemporary art. Such techniques and literary devices of current day cannot be viewed as belonging strictly to the archive of postmodern literature. While Fielding may not have consciously been operating under the definitions and relative philosophies of these terms, his usage of the devices and techniques is strikingly similar to contemporary postmodern texts.

Marice Rose, Roman Art History and Humanitarian Action
In this paper, I will discuss my collaboration with the Jesuit Humanitarian Action Network in reconfiguring my undergraduate Roman Art and Archaeology course. The traditional, and my previous, method of teaching the subject is through a chronological march through imperial history that not only leaves most students disengaged, but also does not give enough attention to non-elite or conquered peoples in ancient Rome and the art they created and saw. The new course focused on art of the Roman Empire through the lenses of war, slavery, and human trafficking both in antiquity and now. One rationale for comparative analysis of ancient Rome and inhumane actions in the world today is that the voices of ancient disenfranchised people do not survive, while contemporary vulnerable groups are (sometimes) able to share their experiences. By reading and viewing contemporary humanitarian crime sufferers' accounts of their experiences, my goal was for students to become sensitive to Roman art's having been created and viewed by real people, and to consider art-creation and reception-as an important aspect of the human experience in times of crisis. The course succeeded on many levels, but I will also explore changes to make in the future.

Amanda Bevers, Of Life and Limb: Negotiating the Humane and Inhumane in Civil War Medicine
The development of museological science in the nineteenth century radically restructured the way physicians understood, visualized and discussed medicine. By arranging medical specimens museologically, physicians were better able to understand the mechanism of disease. At the same time, this empirically-based medicine transformed the patient into an object of study, creating a tension between the dehumanizing practices of scientific medicine and its inherently humanistic spirit. My project interrogates the development of American scientific medicine within the framework of a national medical museum, constrained and shaped by the events of the U.S. Civil War. I investigate how physicians negotiated the humane and inhumane in their struggle to save lives, build a national medical museum and transform American medicine into a scientific practice. Through the display of pathological and anatomical specimens, the Army Medical Museum not only constructed histories of the American Civil War and the triumph of modern medicine in America, but also brought to light the problematic duality of scientific medicine as a naturally humanistic endeavor and simultaneously dehumanizing practice. In doing so, this museum highlighted the role of the military in the development of scientific medicine and solidified the necessity of medical history education for practitioners of medicine.

Sarita Cannon, Coppertone Babies and Sun-Maid Girls: Consumer Culture in Under the Feet of Jesus
In her 1996 novel Under the Feet of Jesus, Helen Maria Viramontes portrays migrant worker life in the last quarter of the twentieth century through the eyes of a young Chicana named Estrella. This coming-of-age tale occurs against the backdrop of the US-Mexico border, the stretch of land (and state of mind) that Gloria Anzaldúa famously called "una herida abierta," or "an open wound where the third world grates against the first and bleeds." Viramontes highlights how migrant laborers like the members of Estrella's family are either rendered invisible or seen as less than human by the very people who eat the peaches, grapes, and tomatoes that they harvest. In a novel that is full of natural imagery, allusions to consumer culture stand out. I argue that Viramontes' references to products such as Swanson's TV dinners and Clorox bleach operate in two complementary ways: not only do they represent the trappings of upward mobility that the working poor in the novel aspire to obtain, but they also function as symbols of the capitalist system that views their lives and labor as expendable. The brand-name allusions constitute an important aspect of the novel's critique of the dehumanizing effects of a free-market economy.

Teshome Tadesse, Could 'poverty of policy' rather than 'culture of poverty' be explored for assessing single mothers' problems in the U.S.
Single mothers with children on welfare in the U. S. are, more often than not, blamed for their continued attachment to the public welfare system which they drain and create havoc to tax-paying citizens. This dependence on public assistance by these mothers is associated with the mothers' lack culture that should be there to prompt them to unhook themselves from the public support system. This paper's aim is to debunk the supposition that 'culture of poverty' that inheres in the behaviors of the mothers is the crux of the dependence syndrome. The paper attempts to see the ordeal from a different standpoint. It argues that the problem is, in part, caused by the 'poverty of policy' rather than 'culture of poverty'. It brings in the perspectives of social theorists like Durkheim, Weber, Bourdieu, Simmel, Marx, Oscar Lewis and others to support the position taken by the paper. Most single mothers with children who overstay on welfare are more likely to liberate themselves from dependence if they are given the right kind of support to delink themselves from a system that often provides too little to evince them to change their behaviors.

Antoine Krieger, Misogyny and self-loathing: Blue of Noon by Georges Bataille and Gilles by Pierre Drieu La Rochelle
In two major novels of 1930s France, Blue of Noon by Georges Bataille and Gilles by Pierre Drieu La Rochelle, a male anti-hero wanders around Europe before eventually converting to fascism. This conversion can be partially explained by the protagonists' disgust for women for, in these narratives: they are the symbols of Western decadence. This paper aims to show that, in these novels evoking fascism, women are dehumanized because they represent the protagonist's temptation of domestic peace and material comfort. They are an obstacle to clear in a quest for moral purity. Moreover, they are also the symbols of leftwing intellectualism as well as Jewishness, which explains why anti-Semitism and ideological antagonism are intermingled in those novels. We will also demonstrate that the protagonist's misogyny is a reflection of the main character's self-loathing. Gilles as well as Troppman in Bataille's novel are two young men characterized by a plethora of contradictions. Gilles hates Jews and the materialism that they represent yet accepts to live off it since he marries a wealthy Jewish inheritor. Troppmann dreams of a war that would annihilate the European continent but is an impotent alcoholic.

Brandon Harwood, The Artist's Eye and The Mystic's Eye: An Expressionist Philosophy of Art for Japanese Artists and Mystics
Philosopher Shinichi Hisamatsu, in his work about the influence of Zen on Japanese arts, says that Japanese Zen Buddhism has an influence on the arts because many Japanese monks sought to express artistically the experiences they had during their contemplative practice, which created a kind of feedback loop of artists becoming interested in Buddhist practice. The goal of these initial monks' expressions is to communicate their experiences not only to a roshi (master) for verification, but also to other seekers, teaching them mystical insight. Hisamatsu's ideas intersect with both Collingwood's philosophy of art as expression (an artwork is a necessary function of the human mind to express emotion) and Dewey's philosophy of art as experience (an artist, an artwork, and an audience are interconnected through experience of specific artworks and art generally). In this paper, I hope to set in dialogue these Japanese, British, and American philosophers of art about Japanese painter, Hakuin, and Japanese garden designer, Musso. This dialogue leads me to assert that, at least in Japanese culture, the role of mystic practitioner and the role of artist overlap. The Japanese mystic seeks out universal truths, seeks to express those truths, and turns to painting, poetry, design, theater, or music as mediums of artistic expression and mystical instruction.

Elizabeth Gunn, Creative Nonfiction is Everything: Postmodernism, Groundlessness and the Dual Portrait
Everything is creative nonfiction. This postmodern concept refers to the decentralizing, fragmenting mood of what has taken place ontologically and epistemologically over at least the past thirty years or since the Enlightenment. More specifically, postmodernism might be understood as a systemic and ever-reaching breakdown in master narratives throughout western thought. This idea is instructive in its relationship to the notion of practical spirituality. The term practical spirituality is postmodern in and of itself, trending away from master narratives of religion and religious practices. It turns the later terms inside out, dances around their necessity, and questions - that is deconstructs - the laden and paternalistic, obligatory and violent subjugation of self to god and religion's relevant integrated systems. Creative nonfiction is a genre from which we might better understand and in which we might loosely define and sketch best practices of practical spirituality and of what it means to come to terms with groundlessness. I use groundlessness in the tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, specifically that practiced by Pema Chödron in the west. For now, groundlessness is understood as human beings' vertigo vis-à-vis inability to grasp the solution to the enigma of our reason for being. Therefore, groundlessness offers us a way into practical spirituality, a lens through which to view conflict (spiritual, interpersonal, social, global). Groundless underlines the postmodern; the postmodern has finally caught up with and given us the genre of creative nonfiction, which, one could argue, is everything.

Juan Reyes, Teaching After Trayvon
The George Zimmerman case put on trial not just one man's decision to kill but also a young man's legitimacy: in stand-your-ground Florida, would a black man have been given the same benefit of the doubt of acting in self-defense? The trial's social resonance was palpable and apparent outside the courthouse and in demonstrations across major U.S. cities. However, lost in the shuffle were the effects of the verdict on college students navigating the real-world implications of the verdict. What happens in the classroom when we collectively confront the results of emotionally charged trials along racial, class, or ethnic lines? My essay "Teaching After Trayvon" explores how the context of the Zimmerman trial seeped into my classroom, how I was unprepared to navigate the subtext it created for our discussions, and how the creative writing classroom can play a role in examining and negotiating the psychological and cultural effects of a public referendum on racially-biased laws and violence.

Tiffany Hutabarat, The Visuals of Difference: Art, Literature, Fashion and the Making of Identity
In light of the recent emergence of fashion studies as an academic topic, fashion has become a focus of understanding identity. The visual markings of clothing provide an immediate and accessible method to communicate desires and values, especially because of its intimate tie to the body. The body itself is a site full of meaning and connections to the various cultural systems imposed upon it; however, it is through the dressed body that identity is materialized-more importantly, an identity altered by fashion. This sort of representation is not limited to fashion seen on the catwalk, but as seen in everyday living and art, and even as read in literature.
This essay strives to break down the language of fashion and show its influence within developing identity in art, literature and everyday experience. More specifically, I wish to apply fashion theory towards an understanding of the various identity politics that emerge due to difference; this essay will examine a variety of representations of the fashioned body through such genres as young adult literature, portraiture and museum exhibitions.

Beth Stapleton, La voz cubana: Interviews with Cubans trying to "resolver"
This session will be an informational session on the current state of affairs in Cuba, based on research done in May 2012. The research focuses on the sociolinguistic aspects of the term 'resolver' used in the Cuban society. Data was collected through a series of interviews with Cuban citizens, responding to the concept of 'resolver', among other topics. The interviews were used primarily to examine how speakers perceive the term and to collect anecdotal evidence of the occurrence, across region, gender, educational level, and age. There were 20 interviews, mixing variables of age, gender, and region (Havana as urban and Viñales as rural). Results of the research show that the concept of 'resolver' is ingrained throughout all levels of Cuban society. Responses were provided and several examples of 'resolver' given at the governmental, business, and personal level. The findings provide useful data for describing the sociolinguistic/ cultural status in Cuba in the 21st century, year 2012, before the society opens up and changes completely.

Zuhre Indirkas, The Changing Face of Violence in Painting: 19th-20th centuries
Violence has been-and continues to be-an element of every society and culture. The history of violence in works of art is as old as humanity itself. Howewer the forms in which violence has been expressed in painting have varied conceptually as well as iconographically. Throughout the Middle Ages for example, violence manifested itself as a theme in religious subjects, particularly those dealing with the sufferings of Jesus. Such works are usually concerned with the exaltation of sacred personages while suffering and physical pain are rhetorically and iconographically interpreted as the price which one must pay for espousing the truth.
Major changes in cultural values driven by the French Revolution in the early 19th century also had a big impact on art. The rigidity of the Classical style made it inadequate as a way of expressing the feelings and thoughts of 19th century artists. Artists influenced by Romanticism in particular now wished to express their political convictions and criticisms in their art as well. This not only led to an increase in the number of paintings whose theme was violence but also resulted in greater attention being given to the socially-critical aspects of works.
This paper examines the works of a number of artists in the 19th to 20th centuries for whom violence was an important theme, looking at the details which these works reveal about the artists' worldviews and perceptions of society; the author also considers the evolution of violence as something legitimized by power and authority in the historical process.

Richard St Peter, The Mirror Cracked: Sarah Kane and the Habitual Gaze
The essential dramaturgy of Sarah Kane has been largely overlooked due to two specific reasons. During her lifetime, the images created by her plays, especially that of Blasted, her first produced work, overshadowed the sophisticated construction and precise, specific language that lifted her work off the page and hurled it at audiences in the theatre. Following her suicide in 1999, further studies of Kane have tended to focus on the romantic facet of the author dying young. It is the intent of this paper to examine Kane's dramaturgy and performative aspects set against the backdrop of the society that produced them. By closely examining three of Kane's plays; Blasted, Cleansed, and 4:48 Psychosis, this paper will not only contextualize Kane's work in her time, it will also demonstrate the sophisticated nature of her playwriting and highlight the performative aspects of her work. To understand Kane one needs to understand her place in 1990s British theatre as one of the so-called "In-Yer-Face" playwrights and how they came to represent and define the notion of 90s "Cool Britannia." Blasted, Cleansed, and 4:48 Psychosis are each radically different in form and structure and each play singularly represents a new phase in the evolution, in fact, revolution of Kane's development as a writer. It is my contention that Kane was attempting to reinvent theatre as a way of reflecting back on the audience the brutality of contemporary times while simultaneously pleading for love and contact.

Roberta D'Alois, Writers Can Dance: A Multi-Disciplinary Process for Guiding Student Writing
As an MFA Creative Writing graduate and Composition teacher, I'm struck by how little crossover there is between the disciplines in feedback strategies and techniques. Ignoring the connections between the two disciplines disadvantages students, and hampers the development of their writing and critical thinking skills. I propose a particular creative arts feedback process which I have adapted for use with student writers that is humane, effective, and encourages student agency and authority.
My adaptation of Liz Lerman's Critical Response Process, a process that Ms. Lerman encourages others to use, offers students and instructors a unique and humane rubric to use for engaging with student writing.
At the core of Lerman's process is a focus on artist self-report and questioning, rather than a focus on evaluative procedures, at least until the artist has raised her or his own questions and received satisfactory responses. (Lerman, 2003). Hauptle, in 2006, is one of the few instructors to map Lerman's techniques onto composition work, so I have adapted the Critical Response process as follows:
Writer as Questioner, whereby the student writer states what she/he wants to know about the work; Statements of Meaning, Neutral Questions, and Opinion Time, where the instructor or peer reviewer states neutral observations and asks non-judgmental questions about the work BEFORE offering opinion or directed feedback. This process calls for an openness and suspension of negative commentary, which are crucial factors in helping new writers develop confidence and skill. To start with student as expert on his or her own writing is one of most humane practices we can use in modern composition work and should be encouraged. Examples will be provided.

Jake Nabasny, Deranged Theatrics: On Treating Animals Humanely
Many philosophers have been inspired by the widely known inhumane treatment of animals. Even though the exploitation of animals in laboratories and factory farms is thought to be unethical, philosophers largely disagree about what type of problem occurs and what is to be done about it. Debates on this topic often focus around how to treat animals humanely or how to assess the legitimacy of animal rights. In this paper, I will consider Jacques Derrida's and Donna Haraway's divergent positions on the humane treatment of animals. While Haraway believes that we are already in a companionate, ontological relationship with certain animals, Derrida is critical of the human-animal distinction proper (which he likens to a "deranged theatrics"). They will endorse different theories on our treatment of animals because of these concerns. While animals have yet to demonstrate the possibility of becoming human, this theme is explored in the literature of Franz Kafka and Arthur Rimbaud. To close the paper, I will examine how these fictional explorations into animal worlds can inform our philosophical theories about the humane treatment of animals.

Amanda Morris, Spiritual Spanking: Native American Stand-Up Comedy in the 21st Century
This presenter takes the audience on a journey that traverses historical Native American rhetorical terrain and then moves forward into the 21st century to an examination of Native American stand-up comedy. She argues that contemporary Native American stand-up comedy is a form of epideictic rhetoric in the contact zone of the performance space, using generic conventions of stand-up comedy, traditional elements of Native American humor, and Aristotelian strategies to challenge what audiences think they know about indigenous experiences in this land. Instead of the academic arena, this contact zone is the theatrical stage in varying locations (reservation casinos, comedy clubs and festivals, cable television) and the invested parties are the Native American comedians and their Native and non-Native audiences. The spiritual spanking delivered by Native American comedians challenges some deeply held beliefs and assumptions about Indigenous peoples, primarily that they aren't funny, humorous, joyful communities with individual, evolving cultures. Specifically, she will offer Howie Miller, Jim Ruel, JR Redwater, and Charlie Hill as Native American stand-up comedians who construct epideictic performances in which entertainment, education, and assumptions collide.

Robert Karockai, Veil of Guilt- A new interpretation of Hawthorne's "The Ministers Black Veil"
Hawthorne's short story, "The Ministers Black Veil", has been the subject of criticism and speculation for nearly 180 years. This enigmatic tale has left many to speculate simply that Minister Hooper spent his adult life wearing a black crepe veil because he was unable to face his clergy after committing an unpardonable sin. I propose the opposite. Hooper covered his face because he could no longer view his clergymen as relative innocents, but instead as collaborators. As if woken from a dream, he sees the men and women of Milford as perpetrators of death. He at once realizes the role of the people of Milford in purposely taking the lives of the Nipmuc in the Battle of Milford during Chief Metacomet's "King Philips War" as well as their idleness while Yellow Fever destroyed the few remaining Native Americans. In additions, the town (and Himself) allowed the Puritan farmers to carry on an uninterrupted slave trade. The trauma of this realization of his role and the role of the townspeople in this thoroughly anti-Christian enterprise led the Minister to don forever the black crepe veil that would be his trademark until he dies some fifty years later, still wearing it.

Christopher Born, Bringing Theory to Life: Experiments in Religious Studies Education
Religious organizations and individual behavior are often studied through the lens of group dynamics, ritual studies, and collective identity. While courses in religious studies introduce students to the theories of Durkheim, Geertz and others, it is challenging to replicate the "real life" experience of religious groups in the classroom. This presentation introduces an attempt to bring sociology of religion theories to life by instituting teams and team competitions into a course on Religion and Sports. At the outset of the semester, students enrolled in Religion and Sports were drafted onto two competing teams. Incentives were provided to promote performance. The teams selected mascots and team colors, developed cheers, and were even divided into separate sides of the classroom. Once a week, the teams faced each other in various competitions ranging from the physical (free throws), mental (checkers), to the academic (individual reading quizzes compiled into team scores). Teams also designed their own competitions in which to take part to play to their strengths.
The presentation discusses both the instructor's observations of group dynamics, behavior maintenance, ritual action, and collective identity as well as the students' own perception of the persuasiveness of sociological theories on group dynamics and identity.

Antonia Dapena-Tretter, Eric Gill and Jacob Epstein: Carving the Way to a Masculine (Pro)creation
Artist Eric Gill met Jacob Epstein when the older sculptor was working on a 1908 commission to decorate the BMA building-located in the heart of London-with larger-than-life-sized nude figures. When the sculptural project was accused of public indecency, Gill came to Epstein's defense, proclaiming in writing that he hoped to "rescue sculpture from the grave to which ignorance and indifference had consigned it." Out of this unfortunate indictment, an artistic collaboration grew, centered as much around a common interest in sculpture as the powers of procreation. With Gill's diary entries mysteriously absent from the year 1909, and neither artist willing to recognize the impact that the other had on his still-developing career, any questions of influence must remain unanswered. Ample visual and textual materials-letters, autobiographies, and artworks-do exist, however, enabling the researcher to consider the numerous areas of artistic overlap. The proposed presentation will demonstrate how their life-long obsession with fecundity was tied to the physical act of stone carving, and that technique and subject-matter together reveal a subconscious womb envy-albeit ultimately manifested differently in the two portfolios.

Kevin Bookhamer, The Variable Grammar of the Spanish Subjunctive in Second-Generation Bilinguals in New York City
This morphosyntactic study compares the use of MOOD (indicative & subjunctive) in 1st- & 2nd-generation Spanish speakers in New York City. The data come from 52 transcriptions of naturalistic Spanish conversations, 26 born in Latin America and 26 born or raised in NYC. The reference model for mood use is from the 1st-generation. Using descriptive & inferential analytical methods, the objective was to examine the use of mood in order to determine whether or not the 2nd-generations' mood grammar has changed, and if so, to establish exactly where & how it differs.
Our findings corroborate the primary results from other studies centered on generational U.S. subjunctive use: the second generation generates fewer subjunctives and more indicatives than the first-generation, a finding supported by statistical significance. The two generations also differ significantly concerning the internal contexts where mood manifests. Command of mood, however, does appear intact among the majority of the second generation, thus problematizing common notions such as ATTRITION, INCOMPLETE ACQUISITION, and to a degree, SIMPLIFICATION.

Julia Palmer, Myths that make monsters: What we don't teach our students about the nature of language and how it hurts all of us
A few years ago I encountered a disturbing situation in a college classroom when I was asked by a colleague to talk to her class about the nature of language and language change, but it never occurred to me that my presentation on language variation and dialects such as African American Vernacular English would erupt into a disturbing display of anger, racism, disrespect and open hostility that manifested itself almost as soon as I began to speak. Over time I began to trace the different myths about language that these students had been taught and that resulted in their aggressive justification of racism and hostility. This presentation uncovers some of these often hard to expose myths and analyzes their presence in our education system with an eye to change. Teachers are uniquely positioned in our culture to expose these myths, but unfortunately some teachers are not aware of them and in some cases, whether they intend to or not, are actually teaching students to value them by reinforcing the underlying messages. The good news is that teachers are just as uniquely positioned to expose and eradicate these myths and teach students to approach and think about language as it really is. In doing so they will be fighting an effective and good fight against the formation of racist attitudes and ideas.

Gwendolyn Dolske, The Bridge Between Ethical Theory and Engineering
The purpose of my paper is to explore the bridge between Ethical Theory and Engineering. First I will examine the argument put forth by Eric Schwitzgebel's article "Do Ethics Classes Influence Students' Moral Behavior?" where he asserts that Ethics courses yield little to no results in moral behavior. In the case with Engineering Ethics, such a claim calls for serious inquiry since the very purpose of the course aims to facilitate a moral foundation for future engineers. I will identify problems with Schwitzgebel's assessment and then offer examples from cases such as The Challenger Disaster and Virtue theory that will solidify the benefits to bringing the humanities to the field of engineering. I argue that engineering begins with the engineer as a singularity who then creates, and that creation inherently reflects a value of the world. The moment of invention, then, belongs not only to mathematics and science, but to the development of one's humanity.

Andrea Watkins, Dispossessed and Divided: The Woman's Experience in Civil War Kentucky, 1861-1865
During the American Civil War, Kentucky was divided through politics, sentiment, and experience. For many women in the state, war meant both a physical displacement from their homes and a spiritual dispossession from friends and family. For white Union women in Bowling Green, confronted with losing their homes to a Confederate occupation, choices made to survive the war included the loss of livelihoods and friendships. Supporting Confederate raiders in Harrodsburg led Lizzie Harden to leave her home and travel across battle lines to survive neighbors' accusations and war time depravations. But such loss and division was not consigned to white women only, these experiences crossed racial lines and were experienced by African-American women who followed husbands who joined the Union Army at Camp Nelson and entered de facto contraband camps late in the war. The varied experiences of Union and Confederate sympathizers, as well as African-American women, reveal the courageous discipline and strength of women in the nineteenth century to maintain family life and human compassion in a time of war.

Eric De Barros, The Labors of Hercules: Ethical Embodiment and an Erasmian Justification for Higher Education
When I began college in 1990, there was a popular dorm-room poster with a luminous header matter-of-factly depicting our society's prevailing, materialistic "JUSTIFICATION FOR HIGHER EDUCATION" (Fig. 1). Premised on the paradoxical success of my failure or failure of my success as a holder of three "unprofitable" degrees in the Humanities, this essay draws on that "unprofitable" education-particularly, as it relates to Erasmian educational theory and practice-to analyze and critique how the poster and more generally our society militate against defining and valuing education in ethical, rather than materialistic, terms. Specifically, in contrast to the absence or implied presence of anyone in the poster, it is the presence of the body as a site of ethical evaluation in Erasmian educational theory as well as Hans Holbein the Younger's 1523 portrait of Erasmus (Fig. 2) that carries precisely the transformative potential necessary for making the case for the priceless relevance of the Humanities in our society.

Steve Wakins, Dinosaurs, Arks, and Floods: The Rhetorical Web of the Creation Museum
The controversial, yet popular, Creation Museum in Petersburg, Kentucky has drawn national media attention. This paper explores the rhetorical aspects of marketing and museum features that help to explain why a fundamentalist religious organization has drawn nearly two million visitors since its opening in 2007. Using popular images, such as dinosaurs, serve as both a marketing and an apologetic strategy for museum proponents. The Creation Museum creates a rhetorical web of images that demonizes and redefines science while also presenting a literal and alternative world history for fundamentalist and evangelical visitors. As part of my doctoral research into fundamentalist cultures, the paper also provides insights from museum studies that explores the effective use of public space at the Creation Museum. The use of scientific frames of reference, like the planetarium or lecture hall, effectively supply 'places of authority' for those seeking alternatives to mainstream science and/or biblical studies. The analysis concludes with an appraisal of how the Creation Museum has been most effective through the use of a visual web of images that serve as an epistemological structure.

Sara McCleary, Indians, Squaws, and Papouses: British Women's Writings about Aboriginals in 1830s Upper Canada
This paper examines the ways that British women living or traveling in Upper Canada in the 1830s wrote about Canada's Aboriginals, particularly regarding gender and family relations, in their published works. Particular emphasis is placed on the publications of Anna Jameson, Susanna Moodie, and Catherine Parr Traill. Overall, the paper explores the ways that each of the women used what she wrote to affirm her own sense of identity in terms of gender, class, and nationality by ensuring that the information presented about the Aboriginals with which she came into contact corresponded to preconceived British expectations. These prior assumptions came from exposure to a variety of sources, particularly newspapers, emigrant guides and accounts, and romantic literature. This presentation will explore this overall theme, but will focus on the ways these women wrote about the widely-circulating belief at this time that Aboriginals were a "doomed race," as well as how they wrote about Aboriginal children and parents, and the dehumanizing language they used in these descriptions.

Kurt Blankschaen, A Modest Proposal for Bad Debt
In every loan or transaction, there is always a risk in the debtor being unable to pay in full. Bad debt, where a debtor does not pay back the debt, is, therefore, a structural problem in free market economies. While this problem is assumed to be a natural outgrowth of the inherent risk of a transaction, safeguards have been put in place to help ameliorate the strain of bed debt on creditors: creditors can sell the bad debt to collection agencies or bankruptcy courts can ensure some form of payment. These responses are insufficient because there are many bad debtors who simply dodge collection agencies, while simultaneously shirk bankruptcy court. In many cases, firms know who and where these customers are, but are legally restricted in terms of how they can contact bad debtors and encourage repayment. Increasing the scope and intensity of encouragement provides benefits that not only help reduce the bad debtor population, but also provide opportunities to those who have been ejected or abandoned by the social and economic spheres. To reduce the bad debtor population, firms should utilize all current methods of collecting debts, but, when these methods fail, also employ the homeless to use physical persuasion as a means to encourage bad debt repayment. What are the financial and ethical issues of contracting out debt collection to the homeless?

Ezekiel Crago, All Too Human: Hank Quinlan as Tragic Villian and Failed Storyteller in "Touch of Evil"
The final line spoken in Touch of Evil asks, "What does it matter what you say about someone?" When the speaker wields power in a community, like detective Quinlan, it matters a great deal. As a police detective, Quinlan tells stories about people that decide their fate within the punitive US legal system. His ability to tell such stories provides him with power over others lives. My paper examines this ability and how the film depicts its failure. It demonstrates that we all partake in storytelling; no one is truly "innocent," Hank Quinlan least of all. Beginning the film as a monstrous villain, Quinlan ends the film reduced to a flawed powerless human. The film renders him as a fallen hero, a sad pathetic man who spent his life running from his memories in a labyrinth of his own creation.

Tomaszek Therese, Colleen Coughlin, Neil Shepard, Getting to "The Heart of the Matter": A Case for the Humanities and Social Sciences in Education and Research
In response to a request from the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives, a Commission was formed to explore the importance of the humanities and social sciences to the future of our nation. The resulting report entitled "The Heart of the Matter" defines three overarching goals: 1.) to educate Americans in the knowledge, skills, and understanding they will need to thrive in a twenty-first-century democracy; 2.) to foster a society that is innovative, competitive, and strong; and 3.) to equip the nation for leadership in an interconnected world. In this interactive session, the panel will present a short overview of the report, the salient issues in higher education and research, challenges to making institutional change, and strategies for operationalizing change. As the report finds, it is the humanities that help us as a people understand the why - why we are here, why we believe what we believe - and the how - how we fit into the world, how we understand each other and engage with difference. In this regard, we will discuss how the humanities can also help us to understand and navigate the conditions of being humane, inhumane, and ultimately human. Participants will discuss short- and long-term implications of the report's conclusions with the intent that, as the report asserts, "These goals invite all stakeholders, public and private alike, to embrace a new commitment to collaboration, and a new sense of mutual obligation to the role of the humanities and social sciences for a vibrant democracy."

William Folkestad, What the Artist Saw: Degas's The Tub (1886)
Degas's The Tub (1886) uses the kind of flattened space we associate with Cézanne at the end of the nineteenth century or even with works by early twentieth-century synthetic French Cubists. Viewers look down and into the scene as if one were the proverbial "fly on the wall." The traditional vanishing point characteristic of western art since at least the mid-fifteenth century is not a part of this picture. Because of the viewpoint forced on us by the artist, objects such as the marble-topped dresser and the toiletries it supports take on a grandeur that is wholly at odds with the tub. The question that arises is how was this singular composition created?
This paper proposes to investigate how Degas may have approached the creation of The Tub. This will be accomplished by examining how The Tub visually differs from works with a similar subject and by reconstructing the space and the objects used to compose this innovative work. More succinctly, it will be suggested what devices Degas would have required to create this image and how he would have positioned himself in relation to his model in order to see precisely what is represented in the final picture.

Jennifer Fraley, Monuments, Memorials, and Memory: The Role of the Artist as the Interpreter of Collected Consciousness
In today's society, it seems almost commonplace to expect a monument or some type of memorial to be erected in connection to major events or people. For example, when the Twin Towers fell on September 11, 2001, it was never questioned if there would be a memorial built, the questions were: where, how, what would be the design, who would build it, etc. Yet, why is this so? They do not bring the memorialized individuals back into reality, they do not recreate events, and often they are not even a direct representation of the person/events they commemorate. So what is the value of a monument or memorial? This paper explores the value of the monument as a reflection of the collective consciousness of a specific community at a specific time, while also exploring the sustainability of this consciousness, specifically focusing on the three major 9/11 Memorials. This is examined by looking at the artist's role in interpreting the community's consciousness through her intentions when designing and implementing the monument. For a monument to be successful and have value the artist mustunderstand and reflect the community's needs.

Julia Rawa-White, "The Transnational Camera: Modernism, Urban Conflict, and Political Engagement in the Interwar Era"

Patricia Matchette, Illuminated Darkness: Film and Political Engagement in the Interwar Era
The dramatic interwar era was a foundational period of globalization marked by far-reaching changes in the international order. Eric Hobsbawm notes that the politics of the time can best be understood "as an international ideological civil war" between "progress" and "reaction" (Age of Extremes). We can track this transnational tension in the superb work of Columbian photojournalist Daniel Rodriguez. Photographs from a private collection (originally published only in Bogota's famous newspaper, The Spectator) shall provide a fascinating glimpse of Latin America during the 1930's and 1940's. These years were marked by ideological clash and urban conflict following the assassination of Jorge Eliécer Gaitán Ayala. Daniel Rodriguez's elegant photographs offer subtle juxtapositions of city/country, left/right, humane/inhumane. Our panel shall explore 1) vanguards of the era, 2) sites of urban conflict, and 3) representations of the same in the photographs of Daniel Rodriguez. The panel shall also address the critical role of historical discourse to aesthetic study and its relevance to international questions.
This interdisciplinary panel evolved from an NEH seminar in interwar modernism at Stanford University in 2011. Our NEH research also culminated in a book project: Transnational Modernism and Urban Conflict in the Interwar Era.

Cheryl Renee Gooch, By Divine Providence: The Voices of Two African-American Missionaries in Liberia, 1859-1869
"Ethiopia Shall Soon Stretch Out Her Hands Unto God" was a favorite biblical text used by supporters of the emigration of Blacks to Africa, and, in particular, the training of Black ministers to Christianize native Africans. Presbyterian minister John Miller Dickey, founder of the first degree-granting institution to train Black men to serve as missionaries in Liberia, proclaimed in 1853 that "the colored people of this country seem to have been sent here by Divine Providence that they might be Christianized and employed as laborers for the evangelization of Africa." Soon Ashmun Institute (later renamed Lincoln University) was chartered and began training Black ministers to deliver the gospel to their benighted brethren in Liberia. Two of those men, brothers James Ralston Amos and Thomas Henry Amos were among the first graduates to serve in Liberia. This paper explores the Amos's stories captured in more than 70 letters they and Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions colleagues wrote between 1859 and 1869. The discourse of Amos's letters conveys stories in many ways different from the constructed and often propagandistic narratives published in the African Repository and Colonial Journal, an organ of the American Colonization Society which emphasized prosperity and growth of the Liberian colony. Evoking the voices and experiences of men at the center of this impactful social movement, this paper discusses unique cultural and historical perspectives traditional history often obscures or underexplores.

Eric Kyle, Living the Questions: Using Inquiry-Based Approaches in Online Humanities Courses
This presentation will explore the use of inquiry-based pedagogies in humanities courses, particularly online ones. More commonly found in science and math classes, inquiry-based skills engage with content in ways that emphasize such processes as questioning, critical analysis, personal reflections, and synthesis. These pedagogies are therefore well-suited for the humanities where we are as interested in how our students engage with the material as we are in their comprehension of the material itself. Towards these ends, this presentation will first provide a brief overview of core instructional design methods, locating inquiry-based approaches within this broader landscape. It will then discuss how inquiry-based courses may be developed in terms of class objectives, activities, assessments, and the like. With this theoretical framework in place, an online world's religion class will be presented that demonstrates the application of these pedagogies. Here, a special emphasis will be give to the advantages that online technologies provide for these kinds of inquiry-centered courses. The presentation will close by reflecting on some of the implications that these pedagogies, in association with online technologies, have for humanities courses more generally.

Ashley Karcher, The Dehumanization of Privileged Identities: What Happens After Recognition?
The concept of social privilege is often described as favorable to those that inhabit its various facets. Miranda Fricker conceives of privilege in this sense in her distinction between systematic and incidental cases of hermeneutical injustice. In her account, only members of socially disadvantaged groups can experience systematic hermeneutical injustice, whereas those with privileged identities experience incidental hermeneutical gaps in understanding alienating experiences. In this paper, I argue that people with privileged identities can experience a systematic case, one that I call a conditional systematic hermeneutical injustice, which only occurs when such individuals are aware of their privilege and actively attempt to undermine it in making alliances with members from underrepresented groups. I refer to Linda Alcoff's work to illuminate a hermeneutical struggle that is not incidental among privileged individuals who genuinely wish to undermine oppressive, dominant discourses. In understanding this struggle as incidental based on privilege alone, we subject individuals who are consciously aware of their privilege to a form of dehumanization. This indicates that privilege is always understood as advantageous despite the realization that it thwarts social justice aims. In contrast, I aim to develop a humane identification with privilege that accounts for its harms after recognition.

Galina Bakhtiarova, Adaptation in the Digital Age: DQ Don Quijote en Barcelona and Beyond
The list of adaptations of Cervantes's Don Quijote to all forms of arts and media is probably the longest of any literary work. This essay seeks to explore the correlation of space, time and exoticism in DQ Don Quijote en Barcelona, an opera created and produced by the experimental theatre group La Fura dels Baus, composer José Luis Turina and writer Justo Navarro at the Gran Teatre del Liceu in Barcelona in the Fall of 2000. La Fura dels Baus and its collaborators strive to create new operatic experiences in the digital age bringing together music, astounding visual effects, and twenty-first century technology, such as interactive participation of the audience through the Internet. Yet despite all innovations, DQ Don Quijote en Barcelona in a peculiar way reinvented the aesthetics of exoticism familiar since the nineteenth century French and Italian fantasies on Spanish themes.

Lillian Mina, Reviving and Enriching Humanities Classes with an Authentic Research Approach
The traditional practice of teaching research writing to undergraduates has fossilized the research paper format and deprived students from numerous benefits that could enrich their academic experience. The pedagogy that focuses on writing conventions, documenting sources, and channeling knowledge from secondary sources into students' papers should be replaced by an authentic pedagogical approach to research writing.
In this presentation, I will discuss the main elements of this authentic approach to teaching research writing in humanities courses. Building on my own experience in teaching research writing, and grounding this approach in the recent scholarship on undergraduate research, I will explain to the audience how this approach can revive and enrich their humanities research writing classes. The main element in this authentic approach is to engage students in their original research projects. In these projects, students are mentored by their teachers (Lopatto, 2006; Louis, 2008) to produce original knowledge (Enfield, 2012; Kinkead, 2003), and thus develop a lot of skills (Buddie & Collins, 2011).
The other two elements in this approach are incorporating articles written by undergraduates in specialized journals for students to read and analyze, and using calls for papers from these journals as topics in research writing classes.

Jihyun Nam, Encouraging students to develop critical responses to ESL reading textbooks
Drawing on Habermas's theory of communicative action and Carspecken's critical methodological theory for its philosophical foundations, this critical qualitative research study explored the possibility of applying principles and practices of critical literacy to the teaching of ESL reading texts. It also explored the possibility of raising my own critical awareness as both researcher and teacher by critically reflecting on my subjectivity, examining both my thoughts and feelings and my teaching practices. This study is of potential benefit to the field of language education because, whereas considerable research on critical literacy has been conducted in the context of English as a native language, little research has been conducted in the ESL context, and no prior research has specifically addressed critical literacy in the Intensive English Program (IEP) context. Five ESL participants recruited from the IEP at a major US Midwestern university engaged in critical literacy practices consisting of eight group discussion sessions about the content and points of view of selected ESL texts. Audio and video recorded discussion data were analyzed through critical literacy frameworks including Luke and Freebody's four resources model and Lewison et al.'s four dimensions model, and Carspecken's critical qualitative research frameworks including coding procedures and reconstructive analysis for meaning reconstruction. Also, philosophical concepts from Habermas and Carspecken were applied for deeper analysis of the discussion data.
The analysis revealed that participants engaged in critical social practices by disrupting the commonplace, considering multiple viewpoints, and/or focusing on the sociopolitical in a variety of ways. Critical reflection on my subjectivity illuminated what I had not previously been aware of in terms of my beliefs and teaching practices. Based on the findings, this research study suggests a variety of effective strategies to promote ESL students' critical engagement with their texts as implications for ESL educators.

Henry Sayre, (In)human Spaces: Edmund Clark's Guantanamo and the Aesthetics of Terror
Between 2007 and 2010, British photographer Edmund Clark focused his work on the naval base and prison camp at Guantanamo Bay as well as the home environments of detainees released from the American facility since 2002 when it received its first "unlawful combatants" (as opposed to "prisoners of war," a distinction allowing the U.S. to ignore the Geneva Convention). As Manon Slome and Joshua Simon have reminded us in the catalogue their 2009 exhibition The Aesthetics of Terror, "Terror is, in and of itself, an image-making machine," and the prison at Guantanamo, as Julian Stallabrass reminds us in the catalogue accompanying Clark's Guantanamo series, "was designed as the public face of 'The War on Terror'. . . a gigantic photo-op, staged to produce images of power. The notorious photographs of the first orange-jump-suited detainees, kneeling, blindfolded on the ground, have been perceived as naked propaganda, made to petrify the opposition. Terror against terror." This presentation is not only an examination of Clark's series as, in his words, a "disjointed narrative" that "aims to convey the sense of disorientation and dislocation central to the daily experience of incarceration at Guantanamo," but also, perhaps more importantly, a detailed look at the structure of space, both human and inhuman, that his photographs self-consciously embody-space as the reflection, the mirror, of terror.

Raquel Chiquillo, In Neruda's Footsteps: Hypocrisy, Revulsion and What It Means to be Human
When Pablo Neruda (Chile, 1904-1973) publishes the poem "Walking Around" in his collection Residencia en la tierra (1935), it is quickly recognized as a poem that expresses the angst of existing as a human being surrounded by the poverty and the excesses of the industrial age. The poetic voice is tired of being a man, of being human, tired of living in an era as polluted and corrupt as the early twentieth-century and from which there seems to be no escape. Neruda's poetic voice sees the hypocrisy of the world it lives in and is repelled by it, but can do nothing to change it and is consumed by fury and despair. This is a theme that strikes a chord with many vanguardist poets who start to publish in the decades to come, including Oliverio Girondo (Argentina, 1881-1967), Alberto Guerra Trigueros (El Salvador, 1898-1950) and Pedro Geoffroy Rivas (El Salvador, 1908-1979). This study focuses on exploring the threads that exist, both in theme and in poetic technique, between Neruda's "Walking Around" and the poems "Cansancio" (Exhaustion) and 'Vómito" (Vomit) by Girondo, both published in 1942 in his collection Persuasión de los días, "Si esta es la vida" (If This is Life) by Guerra Trigueros, which was written in 1937 but not published until 1963, thirteen years after his death, in Poema póstumo and section V of "Vida, pasión y muerte del anti-hombre" (Life, Passion and Death of the Anti-Man) published by Geoffroy Rivas in 1977 in the collection Vida, pasión y muerte del anti-hombre.

Michael Sollars, O'Neill's Existential Man, Distinguished or Extinguished
Long after it was first staged in 1922, Eugene O'Neill's The Hairy Ape continues its triumph toward disquietude, perhaps incipient anxiety, for audiences and readers. Regarded from an existential viewpoint, the play reveals rare insight into an individual caught in the throes of troubled consciousness. The main character, Yank, falls from his high perch, one shaped through self-definition, into the abyss of an existential nightmare. As a coarse and common everyman, the protagonist is unable to reveal his inner anxieties about his individuated existence through brilliant-like Shakespearian soliloquies or monologues; rather, expression of his psychological and emotional plight is realized onstage through O'Neill's artistry in terms of scene staging, Yank's facial expressions and long silences as he begins to think, changes in his environmental landscape, and his ultimate awareness that he is guilty in life by virtue of being born.

Conor Kostick, Humanising the Inhumanity of Nature: Famine and Plague in Adso's Miracles of Saint Mansuetus (c.980 CE)
Around the year 980 CE in Toul, France a series of terrible natural events overtook the human society. A profound drought ruined the crops, bringing about a terrible famine and a few years later, a return of bubonic plague wrought even greater havoc to the community. Males and females, regardless of social position, were rolled along to graves packed with seven or eight bodies. What possible interpretation could be given to such events by contemporaries? One - prolific - writer, Adso, Abbott of Montier-en-Der, addressed these events in his works and provides us with an interesting case study of the ability of medieval theologians to simultaneous estrange humanity from God (who is righteously angry at human sin) and bring divinity close by invoking the protection of a local saint. In this case, the community dug up the physical remains of St Mansuetus and paraded with them. This dialectic served to sustain faith at a time of social crisis, but there is more than a hint in Adso that the religious processions made matters worse and that not only did the community have to cope with a material crisis, they also experienced an existential one.

Alicia Livingstone, The Reception of Violence or The Violence of Reception? The Minotaur in Picasso's Vollard Suite
This paper examines one of the most famous receptions of classical mythology in 20th century art - the figure of the Minotaur in Picasso's Vollard Suite. The Minotaur appears in the Vollard Suite both as monstrous sexual predator, the image of man's inhumanity and violent, irrational desires, and, inversely, as human and victim of human violence; a distinctly novel remodeling of the ancient myth.
This mid-century return to classical myth provides a significant contribution to the cultural-historical study of a period potent with a deep unease with modern culture and the sense of further intra-European violence: through the ancient figure of the Minotaur Picasso explores the modern world, in all its inhumanity and horror.
Furthermore, the Suite offers a fertile subject for examination as an act of reception, focusing as it does on self-reflexivity, the relationship between origin and outcome, artist and artwork, and transformation. Through its subject of violence, as portrayed by the Minotaur, it offers a tool for examining reception itself as an abusive discipline in its arguably violent acts of adaption, appropriation and transformation.

Steven Hooker, Lesbian or Gay Educator? Is It Safe to Reveal Your Sexual Identity in Your School?
The purpose of this study was to determine how gay and lesbian teachers negotiate their identities and how those affect their relationships in school, as well as what effect their sexual orientation plays on their professional practices, roles, and responsibilities. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender school educators are practically invisible within the nature of heterosexist and homophobic education (Blount, 2005). Six gay and lesbian public school educators were individually interviewed, and a focus group consisting of five lesbian and gay Catholic school teachers was conducted in the Midwest. Each of these educators negotiated their sexual identities within their school communities differently, with factors such as fear and the climate of fear most affecting their identity negotiation. Gay and lesbian educators deserve to work in an atmosphere free of the fear that their sexual identity will be revealed and used to destroy their careers. One way in which this could happen would be for educational training programs to include information about lesbian and gay issues.

Carrie Murray, Humanizing the Humanities
One of my assignments in my freshman composition class was to analyze a commercial and write an analysis essay based of the student's analysis of his/ her chosen commercial. One 19-year-old male student picked a car commercial . The commercial shows the British in their icon red coats lined up to fight the Americans, but the Americans scare off the British by driving up in a herd of cars led by George Washington with American flags hanging out of the windows.
The paper that analyzed the commercial never mentioned George Washington, American Revolution, or the British. When asked who was driving the truck, the young man said, "I think it might maybe be George Washington." After a series of questions, the student could not tell me exactly who George Washington was, who he was fighting in that war or even the name of that war, and why he was fighting that war. Scenarios such at the one described are not a rare; more and more students are entry various types/kinds of colleges without proper background knowledge, which in turn stuns their critical thinking skills.
As an ENG 111 (Freshman Composition) instructor, I have noticed that students are lacking background knowledge and a familiarity of the humanities, which in turn reduces critical thinking skills. I have had students who do not know who fought in the Revolutionary War and students who cannot tell me what happened during the Holocaust. By re-entering the humanities into basic college courses, such as ENG 111, students will not fully make up for all the knowledge missed in high school, but critical thinking skills will be enhanced. By altering the way ENG 111 is taught, instructors can introduce students to art, music, poetry, and other types of literature, such as graphic novels. Combined together, these aspects will encourage stronger critical thinking skills. By teaching a graphic novel, such as the Maus comics, a student will have to not only have to analyze how the graphics and text work together, but also know background information on the Holocaust and discuss how events of the past effect future generations. With an increase in such assignments, students will be forced to interact with their assignments, which will in return increase critical thinking.

Rebecka Black, There's an App for That!: Incorporating New Technology into Art History Assignments
Art history is a paradoxical discipline centred on understanding the present through relics and monuments of global, often unfamiliar, cultures of the past. Therefore, art historians teach more than just art; we teach critical thinking through a larger cause and effect process among diverse visual cultures. But in doing so, developing assignments that both educate and engage students with these complex ideas can be challenging, especially if students view the objects or object-based lessons as irrelevant to their 21st century moment. Additionally, the inseparable tension between social class and art still often undermines experiential learning assignments in museums and galleries, especially for students of urban universities and schools. More importantly, traditional museum based writing assignments pose further challenges to students, because the assignments do not recognize the important connection between simultaneous looking and thinking, in situ. This presentation explores the use of smart phone technology for assignment development, which not only recognizes this important connection; it relies on it. I propose smart phone based applications offer educators an alternative approach to making art history more relevant to students by using a tool of our present technology driven culture to more fully engage students in critical thought about the past.

John DuVal, Glimpses of the Humane in the Song of Roland
Since its rediscovery in mid-nineteenth century, the medieval epic The Song of Roland has established itself firmly in the humanist canon of Western Literature, and its popularity has only increased, but it is not humane. Sometimes it reads like pro-war propaganda for Christian militarism. However, during the years 2010 to 2012 while translating this epic for Hackett Publishers, I discovered again and again small passages that undercut the poem's prevailing atmosphere of inhumane heroism. For this paper, I will read aloud from one or two of the more bloodthirsty passages in my translation and question how any humane human being could bear to read such violence, much less translate it. Then I will read a few passages that undercut the spirit of violent heroism and propose that these very passages are what allow The Song of Roland to be not merely an exciting war story, but also a great work of literature.

Shawn Tucker, Sigmund Freud and Brené Brown in Zombieland
The 2009 zombie comedy film Zombieland provides an excellent way to examine how art employs laughter to provide a response to tragedy. The tragedy is the fictitious zombie apocalypse. Sigmund Freud's ideas about humor as defense mechanism, especially as the famous psychologist develops those ideas in Jokes and their Relation to the Unconscious provides excellent insights into how the humor functions in the movie. Humorous and cartoonish violence, absurdist and dark humor, and the narrator's survival rules fit Freud's description of laughter as an association with the super-ego as a way to deal with threats to the ego. One of the narrator's humorous survival rules is to "travel light" by which the narrator expresses the importance of avoiding the weight of emotional attachments. In this respect the film is a meditation on human vulnerability. Dr. Brené Brown's insights about the role of vulnerability also lend great insights into how the movie function, especially the comedy's generically conditioned happy ending.

Teboho Makalima, 'Love is in the err(ant)': 'schadenfreude' and the figure of Don Juan in the theatrical works of modern Europe
The desire to have joy and to allow others to have joy is part of human nature. What, then, of the pleasure one derives from the misfortunes of others? The purpose of this paper is to consider 'schadenfreude' - the enjoyment of others' pain - as it applies to literature, theatre in particular. The focus will be on the universally recognised figure of 'Don Juan', whose self-interest and utter lack of moral rectitude continue to be celebrated in the present day.
Schadenfreude is analysed from three perspectives: that of the 'Don Juan' figure himself; that of the reader or spectator of the theatrical work; and that of the playwright. The protagonists, or perhaps antagonists, of plays (including operatic works) by European writers from the 17th century to the 19th century take centre stage.
An attempt will be made to answer questions dealing with the considerable number of dramatists who have keenly taken on the task of re-creating this character, as well as the reasons for the popularity of this personage with reading and viewing audiences alike. As the distinction between 'active' schadenfreude and the 'passive' variety is applied, one observes what can occur when errant sensibility meets opportunity - inhumanity at its best.

Karen von Kunes, The Rebellion of Human Spirit over the Imposition of Conformity in Milan Kundera's The Book of Laughter and Forgetting and Milos Forman's One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest
In Preface to his Life is Elsewhere, Milan Kundera says about his protagonist: "Jaromil is a talented poet, with great imagination and feeling. And he is a sensitive young man. Of course, he is also a monster. But his monstrosity is potentially contained in us all. It is in me. It is in you. It is in Rimbaud. It is in Shelley, in Hugo. In all young men, of all periods and regimes." Within Kundera's notion of goodness-monstrosity inborn in each individual, this paper examines the human-inhuman dichotomy in his selected novels and in Milos Forman's films. While an emphasis is placed on two works, Book of Laughter and Forgetting and One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, the theme runs across the cannon of both artists. Departing from Kant's theory of universalizability and testing it through Kundera's and Forman's fictional characters, it is argued that man is trapped in the world of confusion, uncertainty and insecurity and that his societal conformity is inevitable, no matter how it dehumanizes him. However, hope derived from these works is visible and tangible: it is inquiry into man's nature that helps him better understand the global world in which he lives and struggle till his death, leaving behind the legacy of creation and art.

Britney Broyles, Prospero the Wise: Resolving Confusion in The Tempest
Competition for the throne dominated England in the 16th century and the literature that it produced. That this struggle for authority occurs almost always among family members makes it even more fascinating. What makes this competition particularly inhumane is that this family rivalry trickled down to affect the lives of everyone in England. Although much critical work has been done on political authority and monarchy in Shakespeare's history plays very little attention has been given to the political struggle within one of his later plays, The Tempest. This paper will examine the competition for political power in The Tempest by focusing primarily on the characters of Antonio, Prospero, Alonzo, and Sebastian and by setting their struggle within the historical context of the political instability and associated paranoia that existed during this century. This anxiety and instability would have resonated powerfully with an audience which had lived through such chaotic circumstances.

Holly Moore, Isaac's Terror: On Sacrificability and Substitution
The Abrahamic religions trace their lineage through the stories of the devotion of Abraham, best evidenced by his obedient willingness to sacrifice his only son, Isaac, at God/Allah/YHWH's command. In this paper I present a reading of the divine suspension of Isaac's sacrifice, arguing that even after Isaac is saved, something very important has irrevocably changed. In order for Isaac to be saved from sacrifice, he must also be made sacrificable, utterly powerless in the face of those he loves and trusts. And so, although Isaac is spared, he is at the same time made newly vulnerable-to a father who might be willing to sacrifice him and to a god who might make such a command. I then turn to consider the fact that a ram is sacrificed in place of Isaac in order to consider the many ways that sacrificial substitutes operate in many aspects of our contemporary life and what ethical obligations this may place upon us, as spared.

Scott Cleary, "Go, Man of Blood!": Thomas Paine's Crisis Papers and the Elegiac Inhumane
Thomas Paine's Crisis papers are the American Revolution's most influential pamphlet collection, chronicling the failures and ultimate success of the Continental Army. Crisis II, written in January 1777, takes particular aim at Sir William Howe, commander of British forces in America, and does so in the very terms of this HERA conference- as the monstrously inhumane commander offering peace to Americans, but bringing bloodshed and continuing subjugation to a distant monarch. Such inhumanity is countered in the second Crisis paper by Paine's startling admission: "What I write is pure nature, and my pen and my soul have ever gone together." The Crisis paper thus invokes a startling comparison in defense of colonial rights: the humane American populace versus the inhumane British army; this paper will examine the consequences of that comparison, and Paine's claim, for his ideas of liberty, democracy, and natural rights, but also one striking contribution to Paine's argument: his poem, "To Lord Howe." An elegiac address, the poem displays a remarkable sensitivity to elegiac melancholy, and maximizes the generic expectations of the elegy to frame Howe's inhumanity, and inhumane treatment of Americans, as both source and consequence of a wider British failure to uphold human rights.

Natalie Phillips, The Pop Apocalyptic: Pop Art and the Atomic Bomb
The image of the mushroom cloud can simultaneously inspire feelings of both sublime awe and abject terror. Since the beginning of the atomic age, the representation of the mushroom cloud has changed significantly. Its popularity has waxed and waned, and this flux can indicate the prevailing attitudes towards nuclear war and nuclear power in some intriguing ways. This presentation will be an examination of the ways in which the atomic bomb has been represented in three contemporary art movements: Pop, Neo-Pop, and Tokyo Pop. It will look to the influence of imagery from popular media on these three movements, as well as how the artists associated with each movement responded to the bomb based on their own historical moment and geographic location. This presentation will incorporate fascinating and rarely seen imagery of the atomic bomb from kitsch culture, mixed with an examination of the work of artists such as Roy Lichtenstein, Keith Haring, Kenny Scharf, and Takashi Murakami.

Scott Hammond, "Wise in Their Own Sight: Going Back to Euthyphro for Yet Another Look"
This paper will attempt to examine the distinction between the humane and the inhumane through a discussion of Plato's famous dialogue, the Euthyphro. In pursuit of this, we will investigate humane personal character contrasted with inhumane-and impersonal-attachment to principle, or at least what is perceived to be principle by the figure of Euthyphro. This is related to the tension between virtue as a quality of persons and rule-following as an aspect of behavior. We will attempt to focus on Socrates's efforts to get through to Euthyphro by way of discussing piety in terms of both moral character and following rules, and as such, slipping Euthyphro a subtle answer about both the essence of virtue and the nature of being. We might also be able to grasp another angle on Plato's prescription for the proper governing of the soul, which takes us once again to the promise and limitations of both soul and city. Finally, in examining how Socrates and Euthyphro respond to the puzzles considered in the dialogue, we may gain some insight into how inhumane behavior is readily justified and what is required to avoid doing so while cultivating a more humane disposition.

Ronald J. Weber, Catholicism's Triumph over Paganism: Constantine the Great and Imperium
The elision of state and church in Rome begins with Constantine (306-337), the battle of Milvian Bridge (312) and the Edict of Milan (313). The ecclesiastical narrative recounting the life of Constantine tends to emphasize his spiritual experiences - from the two accounts of inspiration leading to his victory at Milvian Bridge to his purported conversion to Christianity at the feet of Pope Sylvester. Architectural historians trace his contributions to monumental architecture that extends at least from Rome to Trier. There is a darker side to Constantine, however, that is revealed in Constantine's Sword by James Carroll. My presentation, using PowerPoint will explore the conundrums posed by this man's lasting legacies.

Jessica A. Sheetz-Nguyen, "Human, Hero and God: Wearing the Toga in 18th and 19th Century America"
In 1712 the English essayist Joseph Addison of Spectator fame, in pseudo Sophoclean style, wrote the tragedy, Cato, in five acts. Popular in Britain, the play became a generational favorite in the American colonies, providing political and ideological inspiration for the American Revolution. Numerous revolutionary sayings such as Patrick Henry's jingoistic "Give me liberty or give me death," are attributed to the play. Throughout the revolutionary period and into the growing years of the new American republic the implementation of Roman typology was a popular way to deploy the ideology of independence from governmental oppression. The toga was the costume for these classical types. This presentation will explore the appearance of Roman types and the image of the toga in plays like those of Mercy Otis Warren and the sculpture of artists like Horatio Greenough.

Renee Schlueter, "Unsullied by Roman Catholic 'Idolatry,' 'Indolence,' and 'Dirt'--The Pure Protestant Woman's Encounter with Rome in the Nineteenth Century."
In 1820, Charlotte Waldie Eaton's anonymously published travel guide, Rome in the Nineteenth Century, gained immediate critical and popular acclaim. Over the next several decades, Victorian travelers embraced these candid observations of Italian culture and astute accounts of Roman sites in what became the definitive guide to Rome for antiquarians and casual travelers alike. While Eaton's text does redress the deficiencies and inaccuracies of the contemporary travel guides to Rome, I contend that her adaptation of other narrative voices-the moralist who critiques Catholic culture and rituals and the sensationalist who panders to British Gothic tastes-appealed to the anti-Catholic sentiments of her British audience and thus reveal another source of her popularity throughout the nineteenth century.

Kristin Lucas, Albee's The Goat and loneliness of difference
Edward Albee's 2002 play The Goat, parenthetically subtitled Notes toward a definition of tragedy, declares itself a generic experiment, a modern play that engages with the very parameters of genre itself. The goat Sylvia, the Ross's animal lover, is the centre of the play and the crux of the tragedy. When Ross's love threatens to destroy everything, his friend Martin explodes at him in frustration and in anger, calling him a "motherfucker" (Albee 106). The word, as used by Martin, is a metaphor meant to convey that, to him, what Ross has done, his love affair with the goat Syliva, is unbearable and unforgiveable. But in such a generically self-reflexive play, it surely invokes Oedipus, whose sexuality too is central to his tragedy - his marriage unmetaphors the metaphor-and whose long anagnorisis stands in sharp relief to Martin's own epiphany. My purpose in this paper is to address Ross's love of the animal, the inhuman, and show that within the play, that love asks important questions about the foundations of tragedy, and values of a society that eschews the humane treatment of the other.

Susan Baker, Art Propaganda
Art In the 1950s, Abstract Expressionist art toured internationally as evidence of cultural freedom available under democracy. Void of the political images frequented in Nazi and Soviet-generated imagery, the non-figurative style resisted propagandistic reading. While propaganda might be defined as something state-sponsored, Abstract Expressionist content seemed tied, not to a specific political agenda, but to a larger human experience. The measure of something as art versus propaganda seems to vary, however, depending on the type of government under which an artist works. The Western European art community lauded the Chinese artist Weiwei for his installations exposing government corruption following the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. His piece was seen as an honorable cry on behalf of human injustices and admired as "art" despite its addressing a specific political problem, rather than unraveling some universal human truth. Unlike Weiwei, artists working in democracies can find it difficult to express outrage against human injustices, or espouse specific political positions, without being accused of producing propaganda rather than art. In an age that claims all acts are political, many artists still avoid overt politicization. As examples, artists Judd, Wodiczko, Kentridge and others, whose work oscillates between aesthetic interests and a sense of humanity, will be examined.

Gregory Loving, Phoebe Reeves, Frederic Krome, The Concept of the Human in John Wyndham's The Chrysalides: Puritanical Imagery, Female Agency, and Theistic Evolution
John Wyndham's classic of Cold War science fiction, The Chrysalides (1955), tells the story of David, a teenager on a Labrador farm several thousand years after "God sent the Tribulation" in the form of nuclear holocaust. Only the Bible remains to document the Old World. Since people have no knowledge of the effects of radiation, they believe that "deviations" are punishments for sin. All children must be examined for mutations and certified as human in the "true image" or else sterilized and exposed. The book grapples with what it means to be human and what it takes to act humanely in a community dominated by religious fundamentalism.
The first paper focuses on Wyndham's use of the popular image of Puritan England, with its hunts for deviation and zealotry in tracking down sin, as a model for portraying life in the post-Apocalyptic community. The second paper examines social roles occupied by women in the novel, from rebel leader to repressive mother, with an eye to the struggle between individualism and social conformity. The final paper deals with the tension between ideal humanity as genetically changing versus static, anticipating contemporary discourse of theistic evolution, which integrates the science of evolution with theology.

Rachel Miller, In God's Kingdom?
From its development as a spa resort town, an artists' colony, a Christian entertainment Mecca, a haven for hippies and societal misfits, and now, a gay tourist destination, Eureka Springs, Arkansas has always been home to an odd and diverse collection of individuals. Since its inception, people of varying nationalities, ethnicities, and creeds have gathered and communed together at the many mineral springs scattered within the city's limits. One of the most distinguishing cultural elements of the small Ozarks mountain town is the noticeable juxtaposition of alternative spiritualism and conservative faith-based practices. In the last thirty years, conservative Evangelicalism has become a prominent component of the town. For the community of 2,000 people, the cultural convergence has been a source of contention and a means of collaboration. Although Eureka Springs' spiritual diversity goes beyond the faith-based community, it is one of the most influential cultural groups contributing to the town's economic and social institutions. This paper will focus on the struggles and successes of the town's faith-based community, and how the cultural diversity within the group suggests Eureka Springs differs from other small rural communities.

Dore' Ripley, Humanity's Entrepreneurial Other Half in Bartholomew Fair
Early modern England's entrepreneurs stimulated a new kind of economy where capitalism presented opportunities to a wider segment of the population. One entrepreneurial venture, the playhouse, was partially fueled by the earnings of servants and apprentices both male and female. Enterprising women ran their own businesses as some of London's pub owners, shopkeepers, and midwives. Women making money were freed them from their traditional domestic space--buying bread meant the housewife did not have to remain in the kitchen to bake the bread, or, as in Bartholomew Fair, roast the pig.
Bartholomew Fair
contains enterprising women who discovered their domestic talents could be translated into cash. Joan Trash offers fair goers gingerbread, while Ursla the pig woman, roasts pork for the hungry even as she controls the enormities going on at the fair. Dame Purecraft takes matchmaking from the hands of a young woman's male relatives to her own cash box. Ben Jonson's Bartholomew Fair offers a subversive space for women who exercise entrepreneurial freedom in a society where the capitalist system was just beginning to mint its coin.

Carol Stewart, If This Be Magic: Audience Expectations, Wabi-Sabi Performance, and the Men of Shakespeare Behind Bars
Attending a rehearsal or performance of the Shakespeare Behind Bars project at the Luther Luckett Correctional Facility in LaGrange, Kentucky, is an experience of both astounding and subtle contradictions, with our cultural expectations about inmates and prison standing in relief against the language and themes of Shakespeare, illuminated by the insight, commitment and vulnerability of the actor inmates.
In the Japanese aesthetic tradition of wabi-sabi, unexpected beauty is found in places of ambiguity and contradiction. These spaces of balanced imperfection offer reminders of impermanence, of the eternally unfinished experience of our lives; they can be a surprising and bittersweet lens for rich new ways of seeing and understanding.
This paper presents ways in which audience expectations of prison Shakespeare shift in the fleeting moment of a performance that is framed by a very rigid and surprising physical reality: a reality that includes security screenings, khaki uniforms with ID numbers, a return to the Elizabethan practice of men playing the roles of women, and a heightened awareness of the experience of time. The aesthetic of wabi-sabi provides a platform for considering the cultural, creative, and personal work the men are doing and the profound impact this experience has on the viewer.

Valerie Kesner-Greenberg, Social Media, Syrian, and the Arab Spring
Social media has changed the way the world experiences representation of news events. The Arab Spring uprising birthed rebellious citizen journalists, eager to reveal digital representations of revolution. These photos became a digital form of pointelles of individual words and images . At the intersect of myriad digital images lies the truth of Arab Spring.
"Facebook Revolution" became the name used for the Arab youth's use of social media to thwart the authoritarian regimes that tried to crush them.
Revolutionaries in the Arab Spring turned to Twitter to send digital messages and images, uploaded to Facebook, then connected to all points of the world. A minimalist form of social media is Twitter, its words truncated to a mere 140 characters. Although brief, the characters provide enough words and digital images to impact the outcome of several revolutions (in Syria, Egypt, Libya and Tunisa) collectively known as The Arab Spring. Social media helped to alleviate fear of reprisal; young Egyptians began to 'meet' on Facebook to advocate freedom and justice for Egyptians. The name, "Khaled Said" symbolized the revolt. A group of activists both in Egypt and abroad, published brutal photographs of Khalid Said, showing his tortured body enduring, and the manner in which he died.
These pictures became more powerful than words. Within a very short time, 80,000 participants had gathered in Egypt and abroad to protest a barbaric regime supported by its government. In Libya, revolutionaries used their smart phones and twitter to publish videos including one of mass rape encouraged by the government. The immediacy of these images decentered the words used to describe these events, providing a collective picture of the Arab Spring that united a revolution.

Geoffrey Faust, Is Beauty in the mind of the (all too human) Beholder? The case of Jackson Pollock
The history of art criticism has moved from an imitation of Nature to the limited human optical perception of nature (through Impressionism and Seurat's pointillism) on to the representation of the artist's subjective inner reality (van Gogh, abstract expressionism) and finally to modern art that isn't even abstracted from natural form, but instead entirely non-representational, or "unnatural".
Conversely, the creator of the most beautiful paintings of the 20th century, Jackson Pollock, insisted, "I am Nature!" With Nature a stand-in for objective value, Pollock's own esthetic claimed to be the visual manifestation of Jung's theory of collective unconscious: the more abstract the art, the more possible was an un-tethering from the 'wretched anthropology' of any particular art culture.
Today a new objective esthetic has settled on Pollock's art. The fractal mathematics of Benoit Mandelbrot has been used to analyze Pollock's allover drip paintings, offering numerical proof that a given painting is, indeed, a genuine Pollock. The theory remains controversial, as it plays out in multimillion-dollar litigation over the authenticity of various claimed Pollock's.

Stephen Husarik, Beethoven and the Baths: A Study in Human Survival
Ludwig van Beethoven's (1770-1827) hearing loss depressed him so much that he considered the prospect of suicide in a letter to his brothers. Discarding this idea, he decided instead to fight the growing disability with a great variety of treatments including salves, ointments, enemas, and visits to therapeutic baths all over Austria and Czechoslovakia. The composer visited many spas along the Danube River that drew water from volcanic areas of the mountains containing sulfur, calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, fluoride, and metaboric acid-all of which gave out a pungent medical odor. Many of the baths were located in Vienna itself.
If one plots Beethoven's 70 residences in and around Vienna on a map and then superimposes bath houses from the same period, an interesting correlation shows up between the composer's residences and nearby bath houses. Actually, Beethoven lived in two different hospitals complexes with bathing facilities during his residence in Vienna. What were these baths like and who visited them? How much did it cost to get in and how did this affect Beethoven's finances? This paper will show bird's eye views of Beethoven's residences as they stand today along with historical etchings, aquarelles, etc. of the nearby baths-also illustrating interiors of the facilities, behavior of visitors, and their apparent expectations of health benefits.

Pamela Thomas, "Katniss Everdeen and Ree Dolly: Girls of Steel in Dystopian Worlds"
As I was watching Catching Fire, the second film in The Hunger Games trilogy, a few weeks ago, I was struck out of the blue by how much Katniss Everdeen has in common with Ree Dolly, the plucky heroine of Daniel Woodrell's short novel Winter's Bone (2006). While The Hunger Games (2008) makes every list of dystopian novels, Winter's Bone exists on none of them, probably because it is not a futuristic but rather a current, time-present nightmare. According to Vocabulary.com, "dystopian" "describes an imaginary society that is as dehumanizing and as unpleasant as possible...as bad as can be, characterized by human misery." Dystopian novels are "characterized by a lack of individual freedom, [with] heroes that know something is wrong "(Ranker.com). Although Ree's society is not "imaginary" but all too real, all of the above comments apply to both Katniss' and Ree's appalling circumstances and unavoidable responsibilities, but almost miraculously, both of these sixteen-year olds manage to win against seemingly impossible odds, with, and this is very important, help from unexpected sources, and to assure readers that hope can live in the darkest of worlds. They are both remarkable feminist heroines as well as being complex and fascinating literary creations.

Amy Smith, Maintaining Humanity During the Holocaust: Gender, Jewishness, and Family in the Testimony of Celia L.
This paper is a case study of a survivor named Celia L., a Holocaust survivor from Poland. In it, I will examine the ways in which Celia L. tried to maintain her sense of humanity during the Holocaust by affirming her identity as a Jew, a woman, and the sole surviving member of her family. Although Celia had few opportunities to express agency during the Holocaust, she consistently used those opportunities to affirm these three elements - even if her actions decreased her chance of survival. Although Celia had no real control over her ultimate survival, she could ensure she remained true to the values her family had instilled in her. This was all the more important to her after the murder of her family; it was a way to affirm that she was still a representative of her family as well as to affirm the centrality of being a Jewish woman to her very existence. Though she did not escape being traumatized by the Holocaust, through her efforts, Celia L. was able to survive the Holocaust with her sense of humanity intact.

Kate O'Connor, Socially Responsible Architecture - Humanity Revisited
Architects can choose to become leaders who can solve the very complicated problems of society today. Not because these problems are all three-dimensional or design-oriented, but because architecture is a profession that understands how to integrate very disparate, competing interests into complicated systems that ultimately serves everybody. Samuel Mockbee presents architecture as a discipline rooted in community and shares his mission statement, incorporating design with environmental, social, political and esthetic issues while showing college students how through design/build they can make a humane difference.
It can be argued that Socially Responsible Architecture will be environmentally sensitive while programmatically socially thoughtful; that design can be developed to create interesting and invigorating spaces; that it can provide positive economic stimulation; and that it can all be balanced to form a cohesive unit and a humane solution.
For today, socially responsible architects must serve as a bridge across borders, to develop architecture that responsibly serves people and their communities without imposing arbitrary restrictions - architecture that understands real human needs, such as privacy, space, as well as freedom and architecture that balances design with environmental consciousness. Through this conscientious effort, architecture is the bellwether by which responsible design is measured, implemented and executed.

Maggie Labinski, Safe For Whom? Race, Ethnicity, and the In/Humanity of 'Safe Spaces'
What constitutes a 'safe' classroom when the content is race/ethnicity? How do the racial/ethnic demographics of a class contribute to its 'safeness?' And, who gets to decide the answers to these questions? This paper consists of a dialogue between an undergraduate student and a philosophy professor. Most generally, herein we explore the role that race/ethnicity plays in the understanding and construction of 'safe spaces.' We begin (1) by outlining some of the ways in which the 'safety' of the classroom is experienced and evaluated by students. Next (2) we draw upon critical and feminist pedagogies to analyze some of the tensions that arise in teaching philosophies of race/ethnicity on a campus with a 'white' majority. Finally (3) we offer a few suggestions as to how students and faculty might respond to these issues. Special attention is paid to the potential benefits of developing multiple and intersectional definitions of 'safe spaces.'
As such, our hope is to raise questions about whose humanity is privileged within the discourse of 'safe spaces' today.

James Ochwa-Echel, Campus Climate and Needs Assessment of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Students at Eastern Illinois University
The goal of the study was to assess the campus climate at Eastern Illinois University through the perception of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) students. In addition, the study also sought to identify the needs of LGBT students at Eastern Illinois University. The findings of the study indicate that LGBT students do not feel the climate is inclusive, accepting or welcoming towards them. The findings also demonstrate the need for a LGBT support center. The study concluded that measures need to be taken to incorporate LGBT issues into new student orientations and more focus should be paid to integrating new LGBT students at Eastern Illinois University.

Richard Emanuel, Dr. Siu Challons-Lipton, Taking a new look at visual literacy: A humane approach
This study examines how visual literacy has been conceptualized and measured and it offers a new approach to both. From petroglyphs on cave walls to pictures posted on Facebook walls, images are a part of our world. We learn who we are by seeing ourselves reflected in images, and we learn who we can become by projecting ourselves into images. Images are powerful communicators and creators of culture. It is characteristically human to develop and share meaning; it is "humane". By the early 18th century the word "humane" had become a distinct word with the sense of "having qualities befitting human beings." The Royal Humane Society (1774) was originally founded to rescue drowning persons. Today it could be said that we seem to be "drowning" in a sea of images. But are we visually literate? Respondents in this study were presented with fifteen images - five photographs, five symbols, and five paintings. Two questions were asked: "Do you recognize the image?" and "What event is pictured here?" or "What does the image mean or represent?" Only 14% of respondents correctly identified all the photographs and 4% correctly identified all the symbols. Only 1% correctly identified all the paintings.

Christopher Moller, Masculinity and the End of Humanity in The Elementary Particles
In 1998 when his second novel was published, Michel Houellebecq created an uproar among critics and readers alike who sought for meaning in the unabated sexuality and chilling conclusion. The author states himself that, "This book is above all else the story of a man […]" (pg. 9); however, an astute reader must remain doubtful of the narrator's veracity. While the story is told through the perspective of a man, the main theme is revealed in the pessimistic epilogue. Mankind perishes, forever lost to a genetically engineered race of robotic, imitative clones. This paper declares that The Elementary Particles is a commentary on man as a means to mankind, an acerbic response to the postmodernist view of the role played by traditional gender roles and sexual liberation. While Houellebecq declares that hedonistic pleasure seems to fit the bill of modern social mores, he refutes this idea by showing how humanity's own gluttony for lust will lead to its ultimate demise. The dehumanization illustrated in the epilogue of the work begs the question of what defines humanity, and what role does gender and sexuality play in controlling our own destiny. This paper hopes to analyze and critique this conclusion though the lens of such theorists as Lawrence Schehr, Michel Foucault, and Élisabeth Badinter.

Jeremy MacFarlane, Eating Like an Animal: Cannibalism and Animalism in Poe's The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket
As Nick Fiddes suggests in Meat: A Natural Symbol, "Belief in human dominion does not merely legitimate meat eating - the reverse is also true: meat reinforces that presumption. Killing, cooking, and eating other animals' flesh provides perhaps the ultimate authentication of human superiority over the rest of nature" (65). However, while being human means occupying a privileged position in which all other creatures become potential food sources, a human being cannot exercise this prerogative within his/her own species. Ironically, the cannibal is not considered superior to his/her food, because consuming human flesh signifies a forfeiture of human status - a lowering into the category of subhuman animals. In this paper, I argue that the "exquisite horror" of Poe's 1837 novel, The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket, is not the act of cannibalism itself but, rather, the implicit revelation that the distinction between human and animal is essentially an egotistical fantasy propped up by circumstance. In choosing cannibalism over starvation, the shipwrecked survivors of the Grampus disaster follow the lead of the seagulls they see feasting on the corpses of dead sailors. They eat like animals. However, Poe suggests, perhaps this is all they (and we) truly are anyway.

Anette Allen, Gabriel Marcel's Phnomenological Approach to Literature
The French phenomenologist Gabriel Marcel (1889-1973) was an exceptional creator; not only a philosopher, but a playwright who worked for forty years as a drama and literature critic. His philosophical focus on the human and the intersubjective relationships needed in human community suggests that this paper might contribute to the HERA conference theme. For Marcel, theater/ literature and philosophical thinking were intertwined; he communicated creatively in each and respected their canons, which culminated in thirty plays and essays and seventeen books of philosophy. Because of the integrity and unity that characterized his life, and because of the highly personal quality of his thought - both his theater and his philosophy evolved as reflections exploring real existential perplexities that arose in his own life -- there developed a true complementarity between his works of literature and his essays on philosophy. He thought that literature disclosed the way life's challenges, conflicts, and questions touch people's lives concretely and that literature, especially drama, was a valuable way to access philosophic reflection and ethical values. However, he took pains to clarify that his work was not a thesis theater, where ideas are argued or illustrated. His creative tone is one of exploration. Since few of his plays are translated and therefore remain unknown to English speakers, this paper explores his philosophical notions of 'primary reflection,' the level of objective knowledge,(abstraction) and 'secondary reflection,' the level of the body in a situation' and shows how reading literature can directly present concretely lived experience and return us to self-consciousness. However, his analysis of the realm of objective primary reflection and the realm of secondary reflection on experience (or existential involvement) safeguards the objectivity of knowledge while doing justice to the individuality of human experience. He sees the task of the philosopher to be a watchman against the possible losses in values that can emerge in the modern technological world, ones that curtail the full realization of persons. He hopes to preserve the dignity and integrity, even the mystery, of the person while recognizing human subjectivity and the intersubjectivity needed for human community. The paper will apply his philosophical ideas to the novels and essays of Modernist writers, Walker Percy, an American, and if time permits, English writer, Virginia Woolf.

Eli Kramer, Coetzeeian Dialogue- A thank you note from Philosophy
In 1997 J.M. Coetzee was invited to present a Princeton Tanner Lecture. At this event, Coetzee got on stage and surprised everyone by doing something unexpected: He began reading a dialogue about an elderly woman named Elizabeth Costello.
In this presentation I explore Coetzee's lecture through the work of Cora Diamond and Ian Hacking. Diamond (1) has criticized critiques of Coetzee, for their deflection of the painfully embodied experience of vulnerability as represented by Costello. Diamond puts into question the limits of philosophical argumentation with regard to this vulnerability and morality. Ian Hacking (2) responded to Diamond by pointing out that such experiences are indeed important, but so is deflection. This dialogue on Coetzee's dialogue reveals that Coetzee is not putting limits on philosophical practice, but rather reminds philosophers that they need not always give formal critical essays and that the dialogue form is an invaluable tool for non-reductionist exploration of a complex philosophical issue.
(1) Cora Diamond, "The Difficulty of Reality and The Difficulty of Philosophy," in Philosophy and Animal Life (New York: Columbia University Press, 2008), 43-89.
(2) Ian Hacking, "Conclusion- Deflections" in Philosophy and Animal Life (New York: Columbia University Press, 2008), 139-172.

Robert Goebel, Play: Humanized, Humanizing, and a Wee Bit More
I will compare the role of the ludic in the works of three thinkers. In each case, it is tied to human development, albeit in different ways. In several books written in the late 1980s and 1990s, Mihai Spariosu (1944-) examines the change in mentality that occurred between archaic and median Greece. He argues that over time the raw and often inhumane exercise of power, even in play, evolved into something less brutal.
In a couple of his essays on aesthetics from the 1790s, Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805), maintains that play itself, especially aesthetic play, can exert a distinct influence in the direction of the moral and the humane. In his magnum opus, The Life Divine, Sri Auribondo (1872-1950) highlights the importance of lïlï, a concept that includes and transcends the Western notion of play. In simplest terms, if the Supreme Being is entirely self sufficient, then logically creation is just a game for It. The degree to which the individual soul realizes her identity with that Supreme Being determines the extent to which she may knowingly participate in this ongoing divine game.

Amy Slade, The Process of Tradition: Current Trends in Appalachian Clogging
Although Appalachian clogging has been explored in depth regarding emergence of the dance form, little work has been done considering the spread and evolution of clogging in areas outside the Appalachian region after the 1970s. By investigating the more recent popularity of clogging in western states and current forms of clogging, it is evident that this uniquely American dance form is continuing to develop in similar patterns to its initial origin. Percussive footwork emerged as individuals adapted various dance traditions of settlers in the Appalachian mountains, and today dancers are continuing to incorporate many different dance traditions. The state of clogging today is a manifestation of using heritage and traditions to form identity and create community, both pulling from tradition as a resource and participating in tradition as a process.

Alicia Barnett, "You Can't Stop Me From Talking!"- The Re-appropriation of Castration Anxiety in The Woman Warrior
In my essay I examine the tongue cutting episode described in Maxine Hong Kingston's novel The Woman Warrior through the lens of Freud's analysis of the castration complex. Through this psychoanalytic interpretation of the scene in which the narrator divulges that her mother cut her frenum as a child, we are able to explain the narrator's ambivalence towards her mother, and her ensuing repression and neurosis. In addition to viewing the narrator's development as symptomatic of the castration complex, the use of this type of interpretation permits a more nuanced reading of the themes of silence and repression that abound in the text. The concatenation of European and Eastern ideology through the application of Freud to a Chinese text highlights the tension between the oral tradition of the Chinese, in the form of the "talk-story," and the tradition of silence also inherent in the text. This tension is reflected in Freud himself through his misogynistic tendencies to repress the narratives of women while simultaneously advocating speech, or "the talking cure," as a solution to neuroses. I argue that the novel functions as a statement against the patriarchal constructions of both cultures, and through the telling of these narratives of marginalized women, the text gives a voice to those women forced into silence.

Roxanna Domenech-Cruz, Women's Oral Histories as Part of Puerto Rico's Emerging Ecopedagogy
Puerto Rico has been a territory of the United States of America since 1898, since then women have been pivotal in the island's resistance movements. This panel includes the oral histories of women involved in the environmental movement in Puerto Rico from the 1960s to 2010, as well as interviews of leaders within the island's feminist movement and documents found in private and public archives related to gender, environment, sustainable development, and ecofeminism. The first paper presents the testimonies of a group of Puerto Rican women who have participated in, and in many cases initiated, local resistances to address a variety of social and environmental problems within their communities. Their life stories narrate the complexities of becoming an activist in a historically male dominated society, as well as a male dominated local environmental movement, on the island nation of Puerto Rico.
The second paper presents an analysis of these Puerto Rican women's oral histories. Through these women's (his)stories, through their experiences, their accomplishments and their disappointments emerges the need of a shift in the island's educational paradigm. From their struggles and contributions we can evidence different ways of learning and knowing. We can also highlight distinct ways of, and strategies for, attaining socio-economic and environmental justice through "la lucha"/the struggle for human dignity. Through this research and analysis our intent is to document these women's stories, the ways they organized their communities, as well as the knowledge they have acquired as female social and environmental activists in this United States' territory. Another research goal is to incorporate their stories in concrete eco-pedagogical initiatives that visualize and integrate women as agents in history.

Dia Samuel, Portia Hopkins, Maria Garcia, A Look at Black Feminist Resistance While Focusing on African American Women's Orality and American Beauty Through the Lens of History, Literature and Sociological Feminist Theory
Throughout history, the politics of Black Women's resistance has manifested in many different forms and to varying degrees. Scholars have written extensively about the organized resistance of club women in the 19th century, blues and jazz singers of the early 20th century and the active participation of mid-20th century women in civil rights organizations. Few however, have discussed the subtle and nuanced resistance inherent in black women's slave narratives. The African American female's body has always been a spectacle to be gazed upon as something negative even as far bar as slavery. DoVeanna Fulton brings their stories to life in her book Speaking Lives, Authoring Texts: Three African American Women's Oral Slave Narratives. This panel seeks to examine Speaking Lives as a pivotal text in the study of black feminist resistance. Each paper considers the ways in which mainstream conceptions of African American beauty, black women's orality and sociological feminist theory informs discussions of resistance during the 19th century, leading to today. Through each of these mediums, we are exposed to how African American women claim agency to the American beauty ideal.

Alessandra Tedesco, Authority, knowledge and (in)humanity in David Foster Wallace's Infinite Jest
Under an interdisciplinary approach, this paper analyzes the dialectical nature of the analogies between novels and their real-world referents. In particular, some problems of the contemporary in America are being discussed through the exploration of narrative, philosophic and geographic descriptions in David Foster Wallace's Infinite Jest.
The analysis focuses on the reconfiguration of outer space in a heterotopic place, in order to show the complex structure of the real world and of the human mind. This spatial reconfiguration mirrors also the American culture and politics, and the Infinite Jest's characters are depicted as "puppets" subjected to the Onanian president, who doesn't ask his citizens to make decisions, just enjoy America, a place of homogenized and dehumanized desires.
The theoretical framework proposed is based on three complementary perspectives. The first is Bertrand Westphal's theory of géocritique, a literary representation of place as a way for people to better understand the world around them. Subsequently, Foucault's perspectives on the relationship between power and knowledge, which concurs significantly in the construction of "reality" and in the human-inhuman concepts.
Finally, Franck Fischbach's work, in which the philosopher looks for points of intersection between Heidegger and Marx, to claim the actuality of the concept of alienation by external and internal factors, leaving the individual as a subject without a world.

Maria Giulia Genghini, The Jesuit Reductions of Paraguay - A bridge between Europe and the new world
In this paper, I would like to examine the Jesuit Reductions of Paraguay as a case study for the analysis of the relationship between religion and disappearance during the Spanish Golden Age.My contribution follows up on the research I have recently conducted in Spain and Latin America.
The beginning of the Reductions dates to the time of Latin American colonization, a complex moment of history full of lights and shadows, of authentic evangelization of new peoples and impositions of greed and slavery by conquistadors. In this social climate, the members of the Society of Jesus were sent to Paraguay. We have numerous written records of the first encounters between the Jesuits and the indigenous communities of the "Guaranies," which recount of the life in the Reductions, those settlements where indigenous people lived together with the company of two Jesuit fathers, realizing the first instances of newly integrated social life.
The expulsion of the Jesuit order from Latin America in 1767 marked a moment of disruption between the religious history of the continent and the experience of the Reductions as a unique contribution in the vast realm of cross cultural dialogue that interested Latin America at that time. I would like to suggest a reflection upon the consequences of such expulsion as I believe it fundamental for the unveiling of the development of religious and cultural trends in modern Latin America.

Mary Brodnax, The Pub and the Immigrant in British Film
George Orwell characterized the ideal British pub in the 1946 essay "The Moon Under Water." Pubs were humane places; people who frequented them were often understood as belonging to the community. The sense of nostalgia accompanying the changing circumstances of the pub in the later twentieth and early twenty-first centuries reflects a variety of attitudes among patrons toward a more diverse contemporary British culture. Given this, it becomes interesting to ask how immigrants relate to the pub as a cultural institution in Britain. Pubs once helped their patrons interact in ways that humans behave. By the same token, though, pubs could accommodate inhumane behavior. This paper examines the pub as an icon of belonging and traces the changing role of immigrants in British films that feature pubs. It begins with the 1944 film Champagne Charlie that looks back at the nineteenth-century pub, includes a series of British educational and advertising films about pubs produced between 1944 and 1982, discusses twentieth-century feature films featuring pubs, such as Look Back in Anger (1959), and concludes with The World's End (2013), an apotheosis of the pub film.

Dr. Hans Rudolf Nollert, "Goodbye Deutschland - Hello, Texas": The Curious Motivations of 21st-Century German Emigrants

Dr. Guillermo Martinez-Sotelo, The Absent Father: Representation of the Missing Father Figure in Contemporary Mexican Immigration Cinema

Bryan Vescio, All Work and No Play: How Not to Defend the Humanities
In an environment where rising costs, shrinking budgets and endowments, and mounting calls for accountability are the order of the day in higher education, the humanities increasingly find themselves on the defensive. Understandably, the flurry of recent efforts to justify humanistic study has mostly focused on the ways it can improve students' prospects for employment by providing them with marketable knowledge and skills. But in shifting the defense of the humanities decidedly toward its contribution to vocational education, these efforts have tended to neglect, downplay, or even devalue the non-vocational aspirations that most faculty in the humanities still have for their study. This development is troubling, since those non-vocational aspirations are precisely the features of humanistic education that many faculty consider to be the most important features of their disciplines. My paper argues that while defending the humanities on the grounds of their contribution to the marketplace is vital to their survival, that effort needs to be accompanied by an equally vigorous defense of the non-vocational effects of humanistic study if it is to survive in a form that we can recognize and endorse. I conclude by providing some suggestions about how that defense might be carried out.

Kevin Henderson, Rethinking Creative Writing's Role in the Humanities: An Argument for an Interdisciplinary, Emotion-Centered Approach to Pedagogy
In this presentation I argue for an interdisciplinary approach to teaching creative writing that addresses both the need to integrate theory and praxis and the need to articulate creative writing's contributions to a humanities education. I propose that concepts from the scholarship on affective rhetoric can be used to enhance traditional "craft talk" and to incorporate emotion theory into writing workshops. I also propose that performance studies pedagogies and recent translations of Stanislavski's "affective memory" can be used as writing exercises to help students recognize emotions as personally felt yet socially constructed and as bodily sites of oppression and resistance. After reflecting on how a divisional restructuring at my university (one that resituated the "fine art" of creative writing within the humanities) allowed me to test this approach in multiple classrooms, I conclude with qualitative observations about the ways emotion-centered pedagogies help students discern the humane from the inhumane, not only in their writing but in critical judgments beyond the workshop environment.

Yalem Teshome, Global Trends in the Spread of Cosmetic Surgery : A look at selected countries
There has been a considerable debate on the global spread of cosmetic surgery. From Brazil to South Korea, China and Scandinavia, there has been a significant increase in various cosmetic procedures. While some cosmetic interventions on the body require surgery, non-surgical procedures are equally on the rise. Some scholars have argued against cosmetic surgery believing that it is an exercise in patriarchal power which controls and medicalizes women's bodies, others view it as an opportunity for choice where women could empower themselves and be more competitive in labor markets. Men do also increasing resort to cosmetic surgery.
Based on 3 years of data from The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, this paper discusses the phenomena of consumption of cosmetic surgery in the top twenty-five countries and their determinants. A range of surgical and non-surgical procedures' are compared many of them gender specific. The study was undertaken to assess the relationship between cosmetic surgery and hypothesized determinants such as women participation in the labor force, income, an estimate of the cost of interventions, and several cultural indicators including the stage of globalization of these countries. Our results show that cosmetic surgery is on the rise in all regions including Western countries. There is a significant number of procedures being performed in Western and non-Western countries but at different rates. When expressed on a per capita basis, the highest consumption of cosmetic procedures take in old Europe rather than in Latin America or Asia as often reported in the media. We find that the consumption of surgical procedures are positively linked to income, the stage of globalization, Confucian culture, and negatively to the indicator of cost of procedures and women's participation to the labor force.

Lisette Davies Ward, In Defense of Reality TV: Cinderella Mythic Narratives & Gender Roles in Documentary Competitions
America is in the grips of a socio-cultural phenomenon, and there's no sign of it slowing down. Widespread opinion hails reality TV as escapist, trashy 'train-wreck' TV, perpetuating outdated, traditional ideas about gender roles in love and marriage. Yet how does this criticism explain this popular cultural artifact, the likes of which America has never seen before?, American Idol, Survivor and The Bachelor show ratings are historically unprecedented, topping televised events like presidential elections. Yet most critics bash reality TV, dismiss it as 'lowbrow' culture, and therefore an unworthy object of study.
My paper will explore this culturally ambivalent attitude. By focusing on love-themed, documentary competitions, The Bachelor and The Bachelorette as illustrative texts, I argue that these shows harness the Cinderella myth and through this narrative portrayals of alternative (non-traditional) gender roles also emerge, and serve to question, challenge or subvert outdated traditional ideas of love and marriage, even rupture the narrative at times. Thus, by extension reality TV should be considered an interesting blend of not merely negative attributes as critics would have it, but also positive attributes, and as such allows viewers to draw multiple meanings from its texts, including their own versions of the Cinderella myth.

Saul Blair, Fifty Shades of Plato: Liberated Suppressed Female Sexuality
Fifty Shades of Grey relates the story of a female college-gradeuate who enters into a socially taboo relationship with an attractive/cryptic CEO. Their relationship escalates to physical levels convential societal values abhor. This novel, dubbed 'mommy porn,' piques the interest regarding the value of this book and why society eschews such relationships publicly, yet this book intrigues women's current interest. This novel lauds what society has shunned in photography and film, and still women embrace it. Platos's Allegory of a Cave uses shadows to convey obstaccles that prevent enlightenment for those who are captivatedby false images thest shadows pojrect.

Debra Long, Kathryn Stockett's The Help: In Search of Self
For women, the early sixties marked a time when society stood at the threshold of a new era. The ending of an era of domestic servitude and the beginning of an era of a newfound freedom in education and the workforce was dawning. In The Beauty Myth, Naomi Wolf addresses these difficulties of women dealing with this newfound freedom. Kathryn Stockett's novel The Help provides fictional examples of trailblazers who resist traditional gender norms in order to have meaningful lives. The Help illuminates the way society represses women by limiting their ability to find fulfillment and truly discover themselves.

Cotie Klenk, American Psycho, or The New Manifesto
Patrick Bateman, the protagonist in Bret Easton Ellis' critically acclaimed novel American Psycho, is a man immersed so far into modern culture and consumerism that he fails to possess any traits other than that of the surface. Bateman is completely disconnected with his emotions as a result of his belief that material possessions and wealth define a person. Class struggle and consumerism are discussed in Karl Marx'Manifesto of the Communist Party. American Psycho shows the logical extreme of capitalism's focus on materialism and how this creates a lack of meaningful relationships, which is exemplified by Bateman's being a serial killer.

Kaylon Wheeler, Existentialism in The Hunger Games
In Suzanne Collins’ The Hunger Games, Katniss endures an incredible transformation from an ordinary girl to a extraordinary victor in Panem’s infamous gladiatorial competition. According to Jean-Paul Sartre’s “Existentialism,” Katniss stands as a representation of an authentic existentialist as her life’s responsibility broadens from the welfare of her family to the dire needs of the citizens of Panem. Katniss progressively develops a mindset focused on maintaining her humanity in the most inhumane circumstances. Through the protagonist, Katniss Everdeen, Collins implies that individuals must realize their existential responsibility to humanity and act accordingly for the betterment of the environment and society.

Clay Greene, Reason, Conscience, and the Holy Spirit in Paradise Lost and De Doctrina Christiana
This paper argues that John Milton identifies "conscience" and "reason" as the operation of the Holy Spirit in human beings. Unlike some Puritan divines such as Peter Sterry, he does not believe that the realms of rational inquiry and spiritual inquiry are entirely separate. Instead, rational inquiry and inward intellectual trial can prove or disprove spiritual precepts. For Milton, the search for spiritual truth actually necessitates rational inquiry to purge belief of superstition and judgments adopted from earthly authority, whereby one may be a "heretic in the truth". This rational critique of spirituality is not outside the operation of the Holy Spirit but the very conduct of its operation. The argument centers on Milton's alignment of the terms "conscience" and "reason" in De Doctrina Christiana and his association of both terms with the Holy Spirit's operation in De Doctrina and Paradise Lost.

Jason Slavin, The Breakdown of Suburban Ideologies in Thomas Berger's Neighbors
Thomas Berger's novel Neighbors explores the breakdown between the ideologies of suburbia, and the reality of the neighborhood. The protagonist, Earl Keese, finds himself in increasingly disturbing scenarios of violence and violent sexuality that are justified by his shifting perception of suburban ideologies. Keese's new neighbors transgress his views of the codified civilities and traditions of suburban life, which then allows Keese to believe it acceptable to transgress similar boundaries. However, Keese's transgressions are often violent, sexual, and absurd. These actions are soon forgotten by Keese, who creates fictions surrounding the actual occurrences and their circumstances, allowing him to move forward without damaging his conceptions regarding himself. Keese acts to stabilize himself in a suburban ideal of domestic patriarchy, and while doing so, he unwittingly exposes the ugliness implicit in the foundational aspects of that dominance. Furthermore, only when all of the other characters conform to Keese's command does resolution of any sort present itself. Thus, Berger's novel presents absurd scenarios, disturbing violence, and domestic dominance in order to expose problems inherent in suburban ideologies and psychology.

Robert Beghetto, Uncanny Strangers
This essay will ascertain the relationship between modernity, the uncanny, and modern stranger by exploring the spatial paradoxes within modern society and the individual, in view of the fact that the concept of the self is a product of the complex characteristics of modernity. By being simultaneously immersed and removed from society, the stranger must recognize the presence of fragmentation, ambivalence, and alienation ingrained within both modernity and the modern self. I intend to explore these tensions between the individual and modernity, by highlighting the analogous presence of the uncanny within both. Being both familiar and alien, the uncanny leaves an impression of discomfort and anxiety within the subject due to the paradoxical feeling of being synchronously fascinated and repulsed. Therefore, by drawing predominately on the idea of the stranger in the works of Georg Simmel and Zygmunt Bauman in conjunction with Freud's notion of the unheimlich, yet also outlining psychoanalytic theories and elements from theorists such as Kristeva, Mladen Dolar and the poetry and literature of Charles Baudelaire and H.P. Lovecraft, the purpose of this study is to examine why the modern stranger is a necessary and inescapable uncanny aspect of both modernity and individualism.

Andrew Golden, Tu m' : a 'Pataphysical Graveyard for painting
The work of Jarry's science of 'Pataphysics had a broad influence on the early 20th century avant-gardes and this has been largely ignored by the art historical establishment. 'Pataphysics is "the science of imaginary solutions" and painting was viewed by Duchamp by 1918 as a problem which had already been solved. His ready-mades were an exception to the rule of originality in art and his final traditional oil painting was a catalogue of his ready-mades. Exceptions are incredibly important in 'Pataphysics and I propose a reading of ready-mades and this catalogue of them, as an imaginary solution to the problem of "retinal art."

Margaret Musgrove,Crossing the Divide between Human and Divine in Ovid's Metamorphoses
In the Metamorphoses, Ovid problematizes and politicizes the gulf between mortal humans and immortal gods. Olympian gods are depicted as city-dwellers with Roman-style atrium houses on a Mount Olympus similar to the Palatine Hill (1.168-81). When Jupiter holds an audience, Ovid's readers see him as emulating the Emperor Augustus (not vice versa, as the Emperor might have liked). Late in the poem, a series of humans (Hercules, Aeneas, and Romulus) are allowed to cross the divide and become gods. When the assassinated Julius Caesar is declared a god, Ovid suggests that Caesar owes his deification to his human successor Augustus, not to any accomplishments deemed worthy by Jupiter (15. 746-50). Ovid may have raised the Emperor up to divine status, but divine status has been shown not to be especially powerful, moral, or useful. In the poem's epilogue, the poet declares his own immortality, which will survive even the "anger of Jupiter" (15.871). The anger of Jupiter represents the exile which Ovid suffered at the hands of the godlike Augustus. Nevertheless, Ovid predicts that his own immortality will be ensured by his own poetry, not by gods or Emperors.

Scott Samuelson, The Art of Turning Human: Apuleius's Metamorphosesas Philosophy
Apuleius's Metamorphoses, better known as The Golden Ass (Asinus Aureus), has always been read for its bawdy pleasures. Occasionally it's mined for information about mystery religions, since it contains antiquity's most explicit account of their initiations. We should add one more layer to our reading of this book about a man who turns into an ass who eventually turns back into a man: it's a site of philosophical transformation. Apuleius (125-180 AD) was an important middle Platonist, who translated the Phaedo into Latin and wrote On Plato and His Doctrine, On the God of Socrates, and other works on ethics and logic. Apuleius culminates The Golden Ass with a conversion experience: Plato, too, makes special use of the language of the mysteries to describe the nature of philosophy. At the center of The Golden Ass is a long myth: Plato, too, inserts myths at crucial moments in his dialogues. The long myth at the center of The Golden Ass is the allegory of Cupid and Psyche: Plato, too, makes special claims about erotic love in relationship to the philosophical soul. By rereading The Golden Ass as a philosophical text, we can understand Plato afresh and see philosophy as the art of turning human.

Sarah Kyle, The Monstrous and the Marvelous: Ovid's Metamorphoses at Bomarzo
Deep in the 'sacred grove' of Vicino Orsini's garden at Bomarzo, an inscription is carved onto a bench. It reads, "You who have traveled the world wishing to see great and stupendous marvels [of nature], come here, where there are horrendous faces, elephants, lions, bears, orcs, and dragons." Known for its fantastical sculptures carved from the living rock of the land, Orsini's garden created an experience of the marvelous qualities of nature and its oddities within the carefully tended order of a garden. The great naturalist, Ulisse Aldrovandi, may have called these garden fantasia nature's jokes: lusus naturae, a term linked to the popularity of Ovid's Metamorphoses in elite circles of Italian society. Aldrovandi, for instance, included the category of fabulae - fables - into his encyclopedia of natural phenomena. Moreover, he borrowed the characters Medusa and Narcissus from Ovid and used them as metaphorical constructs to explain nature's inexplicable curiosities. Like Aldrovandi's encyclopedia and his references to Ovidian characters, the garden design at Bomarzo reflects the dual interest in fantasy and order - and more importantly, in fantasy as part of the natural order as it is conceived and understood by man. In sixteenth-century scientific and aesthetic dialogues, the marvelous was a necessary category, an expected facet of the ordered universe. This 'order' was described using the language of metamorphosis borrowed from Ovid that, like the idea of the garden itself, helped man to transform chaos into order.

KIm Abunuwara, The Provo Tabernacle: from Public to Private
Since being gutted by fire in December 2010, the historic Provo Tabernacle is being renovated as an LDS temple. As grateful citizens observe the transformation, is it possible that their feelings might be more complicated? This tabernacle housed the Utah Valley Symphony and has been a cultural gathering place for its community since 1898. Once it is an LDS temple it will become a private space where only Mormons will be allowed to enter. The repurposing of historically significant buildings is not unprecedented; the Hagia Sophia, the Parthenon and the Cordoba Mosque are other examples of buildings whose function changed with local circumstances. However, these changes always reflected a change in regional political power.
It is clear that the LDS church has heroically and generously provided resources to save this beloved structure. What is less clear is the opinion of Provo's citizenry, particularly its non-Mormon population, about the building's fate since there has been no forum for public comment. I am gathering interviews from Provo citizens, Mormon and non-Mormon, to give its population the opportunity to respond. My study uses oral history to address the social, cultural, economic and political outcomes of transforming this historic site from public to private.

Robert Wonnett, Regulating the R Word in the Public Sphere: Native American Imagery, Sports Mascots, and Spatial Identity
The tradition of combining American Indian imagery with sports rituals produces a mythology of human representation across our cultural landscape. Use of the word Redskins and other depictions of Native Americans as sport mascots, logos, and team names in our contemporary multicultural society generates emotional debates across the United States. Associating American Indian sports mascots with public entities is specifically a controversial form of government speech. These civic expressions are historical narratives of public policy that represent social equity and spatial identity boundaries in the public sphere.
This interdisciplinary research approach will address how social narrative, the political process, and legal actions continually shape public policy in representing and regulating depictions of Native Americans as sports mascots. This presentation will transforms the abstract concepts in the sports mascot controversy by introducing a spatial identity analysis to classify the types of American Indian sports mascots into concrete descriptions. A typology was developed to present visual representations of the image types according to spatial features of form, use, meaning and access. The typology conceptualizes the multidimensional character of the Native American imagery used as sports symbols and correspondingly the different ways to identify the spatial identity boundaries within the public sphere.

Janice Mackey, The Social Science Career Pathway: A Conduit to Culturally Relevant Pedagogy and Post-Secondary Achievement
The social sciences career pathway is a means for high school students to bring their narratives, experiences as knowledge, in the classroom. Critical pedagogy contextualized with experiential learning allows for students to be empowered to transcend barriers of race, gender and socioeconomic status. With social sciences curricula, it is important that there be a dialectic in the classroom between the students and the teacher rather than the banking model of education approach. As Paulo Freire noted, pedagogy must be forged with not for the oppressed. This will support the development of students' cognitive knowledge of the field and simultaneously establish a heightened awareness of social responsibility. The theoretical foundation is derived from C. Wright Mills. For him, the goal of the social sciences is to help cultivate a critical world view and produce scholarship that helps translate personal troubles into public issues. This model allows for storytelling for social justice to enter the classroom. Students can begin to learn how to self-advocate and create critical solidarity for our communities. The goal is for students to graduate with an Associate's degree and a high school diploma.

Jon-David Settell, The Poetics of Madness
Plato originally described madness as the highest achievement of the human soul. Over time, especially in the US, madness has come to be seen not as a rebellion against or transcendence of the limits of human reason, but instead as a debilitating "condition" suffered primarily by weak-willed people in need of case management, mind-numbing medications, and strict oversight. The ways in which madness and melancholy are described in literature has informed the evolution of social constructions of mental illness. To explore and support this concept, I propose an analysis of the evolution of what I call a poetics of madness, using as reference points poems from three separate national traditions: Pushkin's "God Grant That I Not Lose My Mind", written in 1833, Antonio Machado's "Un Loco" [The Madman] written in turn of the 20th century Spain, and Sylvia Plath's "Elm", written in the US in the 1960s. Using clinical training and current practice as a psychotherapist, I will also explore the interdisciplinary applications of a poetics of madness, specifically in the treatment of severe and chronic mental illness.

Paul Krejci, Imaging the "Other" in Early 20th Century American Sheet Music
Music serves as a powerfully effective vehicle to convey cross-cultural imagery. During the early 20th century, much of American popular sheet music depicting non-European American peoples featured gross stereotyping and outright racism. The inhumane manner in which White composers and visual artists of the period represented minorities often varied according to the latter's perceived threat to mainstream American culture, that is, White America. Largely through the medium of sheet music and recordings, my paper examines European American perceptions of the "Other" and the role of music in advancing ethnic stereotyping. I will focus on four popular songs composed by Harold Taylor Weeks (1893-1967), an accomplished composer from Seattle, who wrote a prodigious number of novelty songs during his career. These four works illustrate different ways in which a European American popular songwriter treated the image of minorities and their respective cultures, in this case, a Native American man, an Eskimo woman, a Chinese man, and a Hawaiian woman. A comparative analysis of the composer's music and corresponding artwork depicted on the cover sheet will constitute the bulk of my presentation.

Eilenn Harney, The Larger Implications of Violence Survivors as Superheroines
From 1995 to 2011, DC Comics' Birds of Prey (BoP) evolved from a pairing of two female characters to a core group of four with a host of (mostly female) recurring characters. The series has been seen as a critique of the heroic comic genre's treatment of women as expendable figures in male characters' stories. Although the writing was undertaken by a number of individuals during the series' sixteen-year run, the largely consistent vision for the characters strove to counter the conventional treatment of superheroines and to empower female characters in comics. While the work was not without flaw or controversy, it stood as something remarkable within the industry. BoP championed female characters who were both heroic and deeply scarred by past trauma. The main characters each experienced, in their pre-BoP storylines, sexual trauma and deprivation of agency. The writing in the series recalled these inhumane events in order to lend strength and depth to the characters.
This paper will explore the positive social implications of depicting violence survivors in this way. The main argument will consider the message these portrayals communicate to readers who identify with these characters as survivors and positive forces in their communities.

Rachel Mercuri, Katniss's Humanity in The Hunger Games: What's Love Got To Do With It?
Throughout The Hunger Games Trilogy, Suzanne Collins places the protagonist, Katniss Everdeen, into a variety of unthinkable situations in which a child should never find herself, yet all too many in our real world do. Creating a dichotomy between the meager existences of the residents of District 12, where people routinely starve to death, and the absurdly opulent and self-indulgent lives of the Capital residents, where people drink a concoction at parties to make themselves throw up, so they have room to eat more, Collins explores both the heights of humanity's capacity for kindness and self-sacrifice and its depths of cruelty and apathy.
As both predator and prey inside and outside the arena, Katniss has learned to survive by almost animalistic instinct. Yet as we peel away the layers of her personal hurts and history, we see what separates her and all people from animals: Love. Katniss's primary motivating factor was less her own survival and well-being than that of her sister Prim. Later her actions are also motivated by her love for Rue and Peeta. Katniss learns that it is not so much our actions, as our reasons for them, which expand or diminish our humanity. In the end, this is why she chooses Peeta over Gale as a life partner.

Lauren Tocci, Through the Eyes of Camera
The magic of cinema is overwhelm the audience through spectacle so the camera seems nonexistent. The style of found footage film breaks from this convention, making the camera an extension of a character, or a character onto itself. The doomed camera operators of The Blair Witch Project, Paranormal Activity, and Cloverfield rely on the presence of the camera as safety blanket and testimony; proving that the realization of our humanity is within the documented image. Heather in The Blair Witch Project associates her purpose in life with what the camera can capture. Micah in Paranormal Activity utilizes the camera as witness and security. Hud in Cloverfield is compelled to document with the camera as a historical text. Each character's complex relationship with the camera translates into the audience's own desire document the human image. The Hollywood cinematic narrative relies on character development to engage the audience. Found footage film places the humanity within the camera, ignoring character development in favor of the camera being the human element of the narrative. In this paper I will examine the role of the camera as communicator and argue that by interfacing of audience and camera creates a human quality for the camera.

Jessica Cresseveur, Portrait of the Artist as a Monster
In 1802, Angélique Mongez became the target of controversy when she exhibited a history painting at the biennial Paris Salon. According to contemporary mores, history painting was the domain of men because it required knowledge of classical history, the ability to deploy it in a didactic manner, and the ability to create accurate renderings of the human body, which conventional wisdom placed outside the grasp of the female mind.
While each Salon issued an official pamphlet, satirists were free to publish commentaries in unofficial "revues." The anonymous publisher of the "Revue du salon de l'an X" featured as the document's frontispiece a libelous engraving depicting Mongez as a monstrous figure copying a history painting that one of her male contemporaries exhibited in the same Salon. The entry regarding her painting further portrays the artist as an uncreative abject who must resort to plagiarism in order to gain recognition and attacks her with the normative codes of gender common in early nineteenth-century France. This paper will examine the use of copying and gender policing regarding Mongez in the vein of the repetition paradigm as discussed by Judith Butler and other queer theorists.

Brian Slawson, WORKSHOP. Making history visible: Design thinking in action
This hands-on workshop includes an introduction to the creative methods used by designers to observe the world and generate ideas and then a group exercise to demonstrate those techniques. The talk uses examples from student projects where design thinking methods, fueled by local history, are used to build economic development and create community engagement. The team-based creative activity the ways that design methods such as discovery, convergent/divergent thinking, and visualization can be used to change the world around us.

Thomas Stubblefield, Tammi Arford, Policing the Image: Photography, Visual Criminology and the Boston Marathon Bombing
In light of the ubiquity of imaging devices and the larger "visual turn" that has characterized late modernity, criminality has come to function as an explicitly visual phenomenon in contemporary culture. While power and visibility have long been intertwined, what is relatively new is the way in which the contemporary mediascape no longer simply represents deviance or compliance, but often serves as the primary medium through which police operations and interpretations of criminality occur. In response to this condition, a methodology of "visual criminology" has emerged in recent decades that has attempted to move beyond questions concerning the propensity of media representations to deter or produce crime towards an investigation of the ways in which mediated experiences both constitute criminality as a legible category and serve as covert forms of governmentality. Drawing from this work, this interdisciplinary presentation will consider the role of photography in the larger police actions surrounding the recent Boston Marathon attack. Focusing on the August cover of Rolling Stone, this discussion will consider the changing role of surveillance in light of the "outsourcing" of police work, the mug shot as a function of social media, and the aesthetization of the image of Dzhohkar Tsarnaev.

Ruth Osorio, Shut Up and Listen: A Rhetorical Anger of Invention and Invitation
Alison Jaggar pronounced that people in different demographics, especially women, are emotionally regulated; she labeled emotions that are out of the realm of appropriateness as "outlaw emotions." For women, anger is an outlaw emotion, one that is forbidden and policed, especially through the demonization of tropes like the FemiNazi, the man-hater, and the bitch. And yet, justified anger, or what I like to call as righteous rage, is the cornerstone of any social movement. Rhetorically, anger can be a risk-it can alienate one's audience. However, especially for marginalized people, righteous rage can be a source of invention and an invitation to the audience to enter the emotional realm of the rhetor. In this presentation, I will look at two texts, the "Femme Sharks Communique #1" and a 1973 speech by transgender activist Sylvia Rivera, and analyze how anger functions rhetorically as a call to empathize, a call to reflect, and a call to act. I will also consider how the delivery and purpose of anger within these texts shifts depending on the audience. Ultimately, I hope to demonstrate how, by resisting the regulation of bodies and emotions, righteous rage is both cathartic and unifying for marginalized women.

Alexandra Burlingame, Wearing Blackness: A Critical Inquiry into the Use of Black Leather as a Tool of Objectification in the Photography of Robert Mapplethorpe
In many of Robert Mapplethorpe's photographs, the literal black skin of black leather garments is contrasted with the white skin of the subject. Mapplethorpe's work has been criticized for its perceived racist overtones, however, the issue of racism in his work does not lie solely in his compositional choices and subjects. It is an integral, though subconscious element of the BDSM subculture which Mapplethorpe photographed. Power-play is an integral part of BDSM activities and, I argue, draws on institutionalized concepts of race in order to subjugate and dehumanize its participants. The practitioners of BDSM put on skin-tight black leather, a literal black skin, in order to go about the pleasurable business of objectification and degradation. In addition to this adornment of the body in black skin, chains and collars are used to fulfill their sexual fantasies. The accoutrement of slavery and black skin are tools for this subculture to accomplish its goals of objectification. I would argue that the racist undertones of these tools and signs of the culture are not consciously employed, but rather are the results of institutionalized racism manifested in the physical signs of the subculture and illustrated in Mapplethorpe's photos.

Lisa Graley, Invisible and Visible Humans: Inhumane and Humane Doctoring in Medicine and Disease Texts
In Margaret Edson's Wit, the main character Vivian Bearing declares in the middle of her cancer treatment: "What we have come to think of as me is, in fact, just the specimen jar, just the dust jacket, just the white piece of paper that bears the little black marks." The idea that the self, the individual, the me, if you will, becomes lost once it encounters the medical establishment is a recurring theme in Medicine and Disease texts. The more inhumane the treatment, the greater the longing for "visibility" as a human. In works ranging from to George Orwell's "How the Very Poor Die" to William Carlos Williams' The Doctor Stories to Franz Kafka's The Metamorphosis, the vanishing "human" seeks to reclaim, through narrative, its voice, and through protest, its will.
This paper will explore the phenomenon of the vanishing self in Medicine and Disease texts and the humane impulse to reclaim names and faces of those whose humanity may be, or may have been, jeopardized. Even in non-fictive examples-such as James H. Jones' Bad Blood, an historical account of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study-there emerges the urgency to make visible the "selves" lost in the name of medical research.

Lisa Graley, Box of Blue Horses: a Poetry Reading

Richard Turnbull, "Book-Burning and Book-Bombing in Baghdad: Artists Respond"
On March 5, 2007, a car bomb exploded on al-Mutanabbi Street in Baghdad-for centuries the historic center of Baghdad bookselling and book culture-killing over thirty people and wounding more than one hundred. The destruction of books of course has a long ignoble history but this particular inhumane incident became the seed for a response by the international artists' book community in the form of a traveling exhibition of more than 250 handmade artists' books in a variety of media, forms and sizes that address issues of language, censorship and power. The resulting exhibition, "Al-Mutanabbi Street Starts Here," was organized by American poet Beau Beausoleil and British book artist Sarah Bodman and has since expanded to a corollary response project by Iraqi printmakers. The exhibition has thus far appeared in dozens of international venues and is scheduled to appear in dozens more in the coming two years, and a complete set of the books has been donated to the National Library of Iraq. This paper considers some of these artists' books as political documents and personal statements and also as reaffirmations of the physical book in an overwhelmingly digital age.

Rebecca Fairbank, Making Her Self: Pauline Viardot's Conscious Identity-Creation Through her Orpheus Scrapbook of 1859-1861
Opportunities to craft personal identity mostly escaped women in nineteenth-century France. Strict social customs dictated their identity as épouse et mère. Opera stages offered women of beauty and/or talent a chance to transcend social destiny, but at high cost: Typically vilified, prima donnas occupied a subculture outside mainstream bourgeois society; posthumous reputations preserved the worst elements of their supposed characters. Polarized and glaringly subjective portraits-written mostly by men-have led modern scholars back to the archives in search of prima donnas' true identities. Pauline Viardot took pains to create and preserve her own identity. By first manipulating physical appearance and voice to supplement her en travesti role as Orpheus, Viardot successfully created a unique identity. Public confusion of her biological sex with her character's gender enhanced the manipulation. To preserve the effect of her identity-creation, Viardot saved her fan mail in a specially commissioned scrapbook.
Only recently have scholars recognized analytical potential inherent in scrapbooking, a means of creating an identity through the materials included. Her Orpheus scrapbook reveals the identity Viardot crafted for herself, enduring as a proof of one woman's participation in that basic act of humankind, identity creation, typically the preserve of men in nineteenth-century France.

Rebecca Caissie, Fifty Shades of Romance: An Analysis of a Best Selling the Erotic Romance, Fifty Shades of Grey Trilogy by E.L. James
I propose an analytical research paper on why the Fifty Shades novel trilogy, by E.L. James, has had the popularity that it has and what the research findings are for this wide spread appeal based on critical theory and the literary tradition of the novel and the erotic romance genre. This paper was presented in the UK at the Dangerous Dialogue Conference which focused on the marginality of the transgressive specifically in regards to women. For a novel to be received on such a wide scale, there must be something within the text that readers are able to relate to and identify with. At the time of this paper, it was the best-selling novel of all time, and is preparing to defend that title upon the release of the greatly anticipated movie. Analysis of Popular romance, Fifty Shades in particular, reveals much about contemporary society and the way in which female authored literature positions women in the larger social order of Contemporary Western society. To date: 70 million copies of the "Fifty Shades of Grey" series have sold in the U.S. alone, $95 million: The amount E.L. James earned in the past year, $5 million: The amount Universal and Focus features paid for film rights., 3 million: the number of digital and print copies publisher Vintage sold in less than a month, 50+: The number of languages the book has been translated into. The importance of a critical analysis of Fifty Shades to the Humanities cannot be denied.

Sharon Orleans Lawrence, Sexually Explicit Feminist Art: Politics and Pornography
Sexually explicit images made by feminist artists, particularly performance artists using their own bodies, have been controversial from the first time they entered the public arena more than four decades ago. Over time, the controversy has expanded, dividing feminists, and forging an uneasy alliance of anti-pornography feminists and the political Right. There are many interrelated issues involved in this controversy; however, for the purposes of this paper, the debate will be distilled into five primary areas: morality, the rights of women to use their own bodies as they wish, pornography, artists' responsibility, and legacy.
This paper will discuss these issues and show that these images have, rather than raising the lot of women, further degraded and dehumanized them.

Karl Krusell, The Human Side of Academic Research
Despite advances in technology and tastes, traditional publications of academic research (namely, peer-reviewed journal articles and conventional textbooks) remain largely inaccessible and, at worst, inhumane in the eyes of students and the general public. When professors expect this same style of writing from their students, we risk creating the higher-education equivalent of "teaching to the test," meaning we teach our students skills that they can only use to succeed in our courses and not necessarily in wider discourse communities. In the hopes of improving students' knowledge retention, diversifying their skills as writers, and increasing their motivation and creativity, we will explore ways we might expand the definition of an appropriate end-of-semester research paper/project. Instructors in higher education should be encouraged to offer alternative assignments in place of or as a complement to traditional academic discourses. Drawing on the work of several scholars who already see the value in this type of presentation, we hope to outline the benefits of allowing for more creative options instructors can use to assess learning outcomes. Such options should allow students to combine extensive research, demonstration of subject mastery, a respect for narrative and unconventional forms, and an awareness of a wider, more varied audience outside of academia. We also plan to incorporate examples from popular culture--podcasts like Radiolab, historical fiction like the Roma Sub Rosa series by Steven Saylor, and popular nonfiction like that of author David McCullough--as possible templates for creative assignments that ensure critical thought and knowledge acquisition in a wide range of disciplines.

Catherine Hawkes, A Human Approach to "World Music"
Students in the course World Culture through Music/Indigenous Cultures are expected to learn as much about people as music. While "world music" courses and textbooks abound, many focus on musical analysis and performance practice, with cultural context included as a frame around the overview of exotic sounds. To expose students to something substantial of each culture addressed, a course reader was constructed that anthologizes primary sources, reflective essays, and news reports as well as readings on social and musical practices. The use of live performances, guest speakers, and Smithsonian Global Sound will be discussed as well as the value to such a course of YouTube videos posted by members of these cultures themselves. A significant challenge has been addressing past and present environmental and political issues that can affect powerfully the nature and survival of a culture and its arts without disconnecting the course from its musical foundation. By looking through the lens of humanity (and not only the Humanities), students can conceptualize relationships between other cultures - many of them in crisis - and their own lives and grapple with issues affecting the preservation of diverse and unique musical expressions.

Barry Peterson, I want to change the world no longer: a peace scholar's confession
Since 2006, I have taught specifically about the inhumanities of war and genocide. Post-911, I was out to make the world more humane and non-cooperate with inhumane systems. After years of teaching about the atrocities that should prompt social change, I have learned a handful of lessons which affirm that the world does not need changing. Attempts to change the world will not eradicate the seeds that sprout into genocide, war-time atrocity or school bullying. Judgment of good and evil creates separation between human beings, which leads to side-taking and eventual intervention on the side of good against evil. While such good intentioned actions may appear to be solutions, they tend to perpetuate the cycle of attack and defense; we feel justified to change the world to suit our perceptions of it. Instead, we can contribute to the cycle's end by applying the law of cause and effect, knowing our worldly roles, and accepting the diverse, unique but equivalent purposes of others. This inward-orientation leaves us free of the need to judge others so that we see humanity more clearly and interact with each other in ways that promote the truth about who we are and why we are here.

Janalee Emmer, Marie Bashkirtseff: Masquerade and the Search for Self
In his 1859 Salon critique, Baudelaire declared portrait painters to be simultaneously historians and actors, momentarily inhabiting their subjects' realities in order to portray what lays hidden under the surface. This comparison seems particularly applicable to self-portraits of Marie Bashkirtseff (1858-1884), a Ukrainian artist working in Paris, who frequently went to great efforts to maintain a public image of ideal femininity. Priding herself on her exterior beauty and her feminine grace, Bashkirtseff privately expressed her rising frustration with her restricted situation, often lamenting the lack of opportunities for women artists and the impossibility of walking through the Louvre or down Parisian streets unaccompanied. The differences between Bashkirtseff's private and public persona have mainly been studied through her journal, but they are equally evident in her self-portraits. Several paintings and sketches as well as a series of photographs of the artist illustrate her vacillation between various elements of her identity. Posing as a traveling peasant, a simple country girl, a monk, a nun, and a traveling folk musician, these images are fascinating records of Bashkirtseff's shifting identity. They reveal the artist as a performer, enacting conscious performances and creative experiments in a process of self-creation. The themes of self-creation, self-promotion, and a desire for fame and celebrity so dominant in Bashkirtseff's work seem to foreshadow contemporary attempts to define the self through images published as 'selfies' in forms of social media today. Her work expresses a deep human need for validation through self-definition and a witnessing audience; indeed, perhaps we are better equipped to understand her now than in the past.

Ivan Rodden, Interlude Two-The Story of Fernando Alberto Javier de los Arcos don Miguel by Tawnya Alberta Brown
My novel-in-progress Dark Light of Vision tells the story of Tawnya Alberta Brown, who has impossibly large eyes and a decidedly single purpose to serve God, or at least her understanding of God. To establish her vision of a "good community," Tawnya establishes a desert retreat between Phoenix and Tucson as a refuge for those who, like herself, suffer from physical deformities. As her quiet desert retreat gains prominence through the discovery of an underwater aquifer, Tawnya must confront her single-minded understanding of what is right and true. In the biographical sections of the novel, Tawnya relates an early bus trip that influenced her understanding of the world and herself. As an idealistic young woman, she travels across the United States meeting others like herself with physical abnormalities that set them apart from the rest of society both physically and psychically. In this excerpt, she tells the story of her closest friend's separation from his family.

Brianna Grantham, The Hunger Games in English Composition
The goal of a 100-level English composition course, broadly speaking, is to ensure that our students have the capability to write coherently, clearly, and intelligibly in their respective majors and future careers. However, this does not have to be the entire scope of the course. Students also ought to exercise critical thinking skills, synthesis of material across courses, and the ability to present their opinions coherently and clearly. Inclusion of the Young Adult novel The Hunger Games, by Suzanne Collins, in the teaching of my 100-level English Composition course supports all three of these aims, as well as providing tangible, relatable material for writing assignment topics. Set in a dystopian, post-republic America, The Hunger Games challenges students to analyze morality and ethics, government practices, and pop culture. Additionally, these themes facilitate the connection of course material from the entire Gen Ed spectrum, as well as common knowledge, to discussions focused on English grammar, composition and grammar. Finally, the scenarios in the novel provide stimulating topics for discussion and writing, to which students feel a personal connection because of the journey they go through while reading the novel, resulting in more in-depth, higher quality work.

WORKSHOP Terri Hasseler, Sandra Enos, Mary LaMarca, Terra Infirma: Creative play for professors
Creativity has become a concept given much attention-from employers noting an absence of creative and critical abilities in employees to schools suffering from the defunding of creative ventures. If, as many philosophers argue, creativity is an essential part of being human, the loss of creativity within our school and work environments pinpoints a real concern for educators. Moreover, how creativity is defined and applied, in other words who feels they "own" creativity and get to "define" it, is especially important because this sets the foundation and context for the discussion of why creativity is important and how it should be re-integrated.
This workshop presents ways to encourage and nurture the creative experimentation of professors, as a means of helping them to develop a University-based discussion on creativity, to help them think about competing and complementary definitions of creativity, and to explore the impact of creativity on pedagogy (especially paying attention to the anxieties that are an inherent part of creative exploration).
In the workshop, participants will be introduced to the Bryant University Creativity Fellows, which is a year long seminar devoted to encouraging and nurturing creative play in professors. Participations will be taken through an activity to discover how such activities lend themselves to learning, by enhancing vulnerability in a safe environment, encouraging risk-taking, and developing a rich and complex conversation on creativity. Participants will discuss how such a program can be developed on their respective campuses.

Shannon McCraw, Shaping Public Opinion: The Chickasaw Nation and Choctaw Nation's Use of a Web-Based Video Channel
I n 2010, the Chickasaw Nation, and the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma launched a web-based video channel stating the Nations' claim to tribal water rights in southeastern Oklahoma. This communication strategy was implemented to shape public opinion concerning the water dispute, while the Nations began discussions with the State of Oklahoma. Corntassel and Witmer convincingly argue "managing political perception is a major struggle for indigenous people." However, their work exclusively explains the state-to-state governmental relationship, and the context of federal elections. This presentation explores the Chickasaw and Choctaw Nations' web-based video channel as an instrument of communication to shape public opinion. Specifically, I will be looking at the WaterFuture.tv website. I argue this web-based video channel is a useful communication tool in deploying information, and teaching the lessons of tribal sovereignty, but it's real value is in the content explaining the roles of the Chickasaw Nation and Choctaw Nation as protectors and willing negotiators for the benefit or rural communities and regional commerce. In conclusion, this presentation, by closely examining the WaterFuture.tv website, offers insight into how two American Indian nations have sought to use web-based communication strategies to manage perception within the court of public opinion.

Timurhan Vengco, "I am what the gods have made me": Exploring the Gamer-Avatar Relationship in God of War III
This paper analyzes the gamer-avatar relationship in SCE Santa Monica Studio's God of War III for Sony's PlayStation 3 game console. The "avatar" is the Sanskrit word for a deity's reincarnation or manifestation on earth, which allows them to explore and interact with the earth. Similarly, God of War III allows gamers to control Kratos, the protagonist, to explore and interact with the game world, while seeking revenge against the Greek gods, for their trickery and manipulations. Due to this gamer-avatar relationship, gamers assume a co-authorial role, as they must control the protagonist towards the resolution of the game. However, God of War III is one of many games that disrupt this gamer-avatar relationship through the use of cinematic cut-scenes. When the game shows these cut-scenes, gamers lose control of Kratos, and act more as viewers of a film rather than co-authors of the narrative. While many games incorporate cinematic cut-scenes, this paper argues that God of War III's overall narrative and incorporation of cut-scenes allegorizes the gamer-avatar relationship by appropriating the human-god relationships found in Homer's epics and Kratos' ultimate desire of liberating himself from the gods' control.

Larry Burton, Obituary for a University Requirement
My presentation is an obituary announcing the death of the English requirement in general education in both the four-year and in the two-year college. The whole idea of an "English requirement" is irrelevant and insignificant, and the time has come to abolish it and to undermine the view that it's still important. I'm sorry for faculty in English or in Writing or in General Education who like to think it is necessary, and there have been groups at every school where I've ever taught. But I am teaching students for an uncertain future and for jobs that don't yet exist, and the primary skills needed for these jobs today will not be grammar, correctness, spelling, and mechanics, or close reading. These are shrinking in importance because of environmental transformations currently underway. I am willing to change the environment in which I teach and learn. I'll start by renaming it. I'm calling it "Technological Humanism."

Cara Tomlinson, Making Objects: practicing the human/e and inhuman/e
The avant garde in visual art has historically utilized transgression and shock to move their aesthetic project forward, at times disregarding ethical treatment of nature, humans and animals. This common historical understanding of modernism in art often leaves out a focus on the phenomenology of the studio practice and the deep ethical response that art making can engender. My paper addresses how an art practice can be a model for a system of ethics in how it engages with objects, materials and the physical body in the environment of a studio. Specifically, I will examine this as both a feminist practice as well as a practice that has great potential to serve as a model for other disciplines by focusing on ideas from object-oriented ontology, specifically those of environmental studies theorist, Timothy Morton. Through discussing these theories and showing examples of specific artists, I argue that a practice-based knowledge of ethics is a natural outcome of many artists' daily studio work offering a valuable theater for discussion and distinction between human/e and inhuman/e. In conclusion, this paper sheds light on a rarely acknowledged issue in the academy: the value a physical, object-oriented practice has for examining environmental, philosophical and political issues of our time.

Austin Pidgeon, The Lady From Shanghai: Commodity, Desire, and a Re-Working of the Noir Standard
By the time the term "noir" was coined around 1947, the film genre had developed an inventory of visual, thematic, and plot tropes used to identify previously produced noir films and utilized in the making of new noir films. While these tropes helped identify noir as a unique and inventive genre, they soon became so familiar to audiences and critics that the fundamental sense of disruption noir directors attempted to create lost its effect. Orson Welles, in his 1947 film The Lady of Shanghai, drew largely from these tropes to re-render that disruption by, essentially, turning the tropes on themselves, by repositioning them in an ironic light that brought a freshly disturbing touch to a then-familiar genre. This paper will analyze Welles' genius in reversing these visual, thematic, and plot tropes while reasserting The Lady from Shanghai as a quintessential film noir. Through this process this paper will read into Welles' film a commentary on American culture in several forms: the dramatic increase in commoditization post-World War II, the mystified desire of wealth and love (specifically in the forms of material goods and prohibited/irreconcilable sexual satisfaction), and the inherent patriarchal and racist influences embedded in American society.

James Larner, Annie Loechle, The Rake's Progress: Human, all too Human
This presentation is an interdisciplinary exploration of The Rake's Progress. We will analyze the series of paintings and popular prints by the 18th century English artist William Hogarth as well as the 20th century opera by the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky who was inspired to write his composition after viewing Hogarth's work. By investigating the motivation, message, and reception of these two works, we will compare and contrast the worlds from which they came, analyzing the growing sense of inhumanity in both of these modern worlds.

Meghan Sills, The Columbus Mentality: A Look Into Inhumane Representation of Two-Spirit People Across the Humanities
This paper examines the impact and limitations of Western thought through a study of non-fictional Native and First Nations two-spirit literature. By examining the process through which literature on the identity of two-spirit people is created within English-speaking scholarly circles, I clarify the social constructs and constraints placed upon such research via critical theory as well as the effect it has on the general understanding and stereotyping of Native culture when viewed from a non-Native perspective. Some view creating a shift in attitude as the job of cultural anthropologists alone, yet fail to realize the undeniable influence and even expectation of Western logic in all disciplines across the humanities. The Western inability to accurately portray (small but) important aspects of non-Western cultures due to the requirement of a pre-existing primary source creates a large gap between Western and non-Western logic, begging for an answer to such a complex and perplexing question as, "What is one to do when the idea in question is undeniably non-Western and would create a poor, if not inhumane, representation of a culture when translated to Western thought and when intended for a Western audience?"

Cecilia Peek, Rejecting Paradise: The Human Impulse to Strive in Homer's Odyssey
Homer's Odyssey is the story of one man's homecoming from the Trojan War. After twenty years away-ten of them spent fighting a war on foreign soil; seven of them living as a hostage of the divine nymph Calypso-Odysseus finally succeeds in returning to his home in Ithaka.
The hero first appears in the poem as a prisoner on Calypso's island, spending his days gazing out to sea. With the nymph he enjoys the intimate company of an ageless, deathless goddess, who offers him immortality as her husband, but the hero only wishes to return home. This longing is a source of amazement and irritation to Calypso. When given a choice, why would Odysseus reject an offer of immortality, which might appear to be every hero's dream? If one is predominantly interested in the romantic aspects of the poem, the love for his wife and the longing to see his son may provide motive enough for Odysseus' impulse to depart. If, however, one considers the bloody and dangerous tasks awaiting him, then one may wonder why this war-weary man would yearn to leave this island paradise for the trials of mortality that still await in "rocky Ithaka."
This paper proposes that a key characteristic of the true hero is the very human impulse to strive, to accept and brave hardships in order to elevate oneself and the experience of all one's fellow creatures. To strive, to progress, to change is at the very heart of the human and the heroic quest, and it is a quest much to be preferred to the unchanging and unchangeable world offered by Calypso.

James Bell, Ibsen's Dramaturgy of Gender
While composing a new play titled Theatron, I have been examining traditional Greek gender character types and tracing them through theatre ages. These types include masculine strong women, over-feminine weak women, over-masculine strong men, and feminine weak men. My play ends with a fusion of bits of Ibsen's plays as a culmination of such character types. Ibsen plays with the strong and weak female and the strong and weak male trying to find characters in the right combinations who can find each other and come together to help evolve humanity. My paper will look at particular characters from Vikings at Helgeland as prototypes for those that emerge in Ibsen's Prose Cycle, such as Nora and Hedda and Torvald and Eilert, to name a few. My paper will provide research intended to further develop the climax of my play.

James Bell, 10-Minute Play Readings
I propose to put together for a session readings of four 10-minute original plays. One would be mine, a particular passage from my new play Theatron. I would also solicit submissions from among HERA members. As guidelines, I would require that each play need no more than four readers who could double parts as necessary. The writers would serve as readers for the other plays, and I would solicit a couple of other volunteer readers. With four readings, there would be time following to respond to each play, as the four plays should be no longer than three traditional conference presentations. I was able to oversee a similar session at the San Francisco conference to great success. Those involved have requested that I do similarly, and I am aware of several plays currently in development for this. I think it works well to present new art in such a fashion, which could then be discussed. 10-minute plays have become widely popular (there are several national festivals and competitions for them). They are a simpler form and a good exercise for newer writers or those with interest in or aspirations towards theatrical writing. This would present a good opportunity for members to try their hand at theatrical writing in a way that would be nurturing to a new creative endeavor and would provide useful feedback. Additionally, it provides the opportunity for members to be involved in an art-making process, which is itself very transformational. I would be responsible for reading the submissions and selecting the other three presentations.

Lisa Shugoll, Teaching Medical Humanities to Undergraduates
The discipline of Medical Humanities seeks to make the practice of healthcare more humane. This relatively new field of inquiry has demonstrated myriad benefits for students and also for established healthcare providers. Research shows that medical students who study works of art have improved diagnostic skills, and that those who study literature have an enhanced ability to communicate meaningfully with patients. In addition, there is evidence that engagement with the arts helps prevent burnout and compassion fatigue in healthcare providers.
Medical Humanities courses are increasingly being offered to medical and graduate students, but courses for undergraduates are rare. In this presentation I will argue that Medical Humanities education should begin at the undergraduate level where it has the potential to reach students considering careers in all aspects of healthcare. I will discuss my experience teaching an undergraduate Medical Humanities course at the University of Louisville and will demonstrate how the arts can be used to reawaken compassion and foster empathy. I will also discuss the concept of a mindful encounter (a crucial aspect of any caregiver/patient relationship) and will consider the ways in which the arts can be used to boost the capacity for sustained attention and empathetic response.

Jennifer Harrison, Michele Hinton-Riley, Gender Stereotypes in Advertising: Just how far have we come?
From the 1950s Schiltz ad, "Don't worry, darling, you didn't burn the beer," to the 1980s's ads emphasizing the value of intelligent motherhood, "Make the smart choice. KoolAid instead of soda," or the gender roles mockery of the "I will" "…put the seat down" and "…carry your lip balm" pronouncements of the 2010 Super Bowl Dodge Charger "Man's Last Stand" ad, gender has been a mainstay of product advertising. As a product of human creation, advertisements often reflect cultural trends and societal expectations. The feminist movement has resulted in far-reaching, positive effects on modern society, but have those effects stretched to advertising? Ironically, advertising is ever-present in 21st century society; we are constantly inundated by ads, but have gender stereotypes faded from view? Using the message of the 1968 Virginia Slims campaign, "Have you {sic} come a long way, baby"?, this presentation seeks to explore that very point, considering how advertisements from 1950 to 2013 reflect a very human history as well as whether advertisements accurately reflect women's place in society.

Joana Owens, 'Without the Law, It's All Darkness': The Human Condition in Woody Allen's Crimes and Misdemeanors
In Crimes and Misdemeanors, Woody Allen explores a question central to the concept of humanity-why should an individual act morally when the benefits of immoral action seem to outweigh the potential costs? In the film, Judah has drifted away from his early religious beliefs. When his mistress threatens to expose both his marital infidelities and his questionable business dealings, Judah begins to consider murder a possible solution. His inner moral conflict brings to the surface his latent religious beliefs and forces him to consider whether the universe is indifferent or imbued with a moral structure bestowed by a higher power. After the crime has been committed, Judah's gradual escape from guilt back to a normal life confirms his darkest suspicions about the true nature of the universe, ultimately making the film a strong artistic and philosophical statement about the human condition. Set against the backdrop of a culture where success is rewarded over good intentions and crimes go unpunished, _Crimes and Misdemeanors_ serves as complex exploration of the beliefs that can move people towards humane behavior while at the same time making us question what the very nature of humanity really is.

Derek Bobella, Inhumane Identities in Marxist Literary Theory
There is an intrinsic subversive nature which exists within humanity. This trait has contributed to a majority of issues from genocides to equal rights. Marxist theory challenged oppression by re-configuring economic power structures. However, this does not address the imbedded issue of subversion through association. Althusser saw this issue in Marxism and sought a method of understanding this process. Althusser states that a person is not entitled to individuality. We are instead instantaneously subverted to predisposed subjects based on associations. Though championed as a less subversive view when compared to standard Marxist theory it is nonetheless a method which strips the individual of their humanity. This work will demonstrate that Althusser's method can be further examined and a shift can be made from oppressing the individual to further understanding the person. Utilizing Althusser's method of subjection in examining Salvatore Paradise and Dean Moriarty from On the Road by Jack Kerouac, we forgo the physical and are left with the image of the character. When applied to literature Althusser's method undergoes a shift. Oppressive nature now changes to understanding. This change when applied to literature establishes a fundamental base for re-extrapolation back into the physical, eliminating detrimental and inhumane subversive qualities.

Xiaofang Huang, "The Bold but Naive Rebel": The Modern Challenge to The Traditional Agrarian Community
Much has been written on the societal transition from traditional agrarianism to modern industrialism in the American South and China, but few scholars have attempted to explore this transition by comparing the family novels of the American South and China. Since traditional agrarian families are the most fundamental and central social units of these two societies, the proposed paper will compare and contrast the two traditional families in two family novels written in the 1930s: Allen Tate's The Fathers and Ba Jin's Family. More specifically, this paper will focus on the two rebels of the families, George Posey and Gao Juehui, and show how their rebellious behaviors are essentially challenges to the traditional hierarchical orders of their families. Through comparing and contrasting their rebellious acts, such as leaving the family, this paper argues that the modern challenge to the traditional agrarian hierarchy stems largely from a drastic shift in how individuals relate to their communities. More precisely, the two rebels serve as the symbols of the modern order that challenges the individuals' relation to communities as families writ large in a traditional agrarian society.

Emily Alianello, Style and Community in the Sermons of Lancelot Andrewes
The sermons of Lancelot Andrewes show the tension between his roles as "avant-garde" theologian and favored court preacher. They express discomfort with the Reformed emphasis on the preached Word as the primary means of grace, which Andrewes felt came at the expense of active piety. Scholarship on Andrewes has often described this tension as ironically anti-sermon. This paper will argue that, to the contrary, Andrewes' sermons place enormous value on the Scriptural texts they explicate, seeing both the Word and its preaching as irreplaceable vehicles of grace, yet necessarily working in concert with the participatory practice of the liturgy and the Eucharist. Andrewes' distinctive style furthers these ecclesiastical and pastoral goals by not only calling his auditors to join in the participation of community accessed through prayer and the sacraments, but also drawing them to partake in the sermon itself.

Lee Ann Westman, DeAnna Varela, Christina Funkhouser, Making in the Inhumane Human: The 21st Century Online Classroom and the Humanities
This panel will focus on teaching and learning in Humanities courses using non-traditional classroom settings such as online, hybrid, and tech-enhanced platforms. Professors Westman and Varela from The University of Texas at El Paso will share the collaboration and evolution of a course titled Popular Culture, as well as current research in the field of teaching and learning in the online environment and at UTEP. A detailed discussion of how online course development shaped their approach to teaching virtually as well as face to face, and the strategies developed to facilitate more active learning and student engagement in all environments will be shared. Graduate student Funkhouser will share her experiences as an online learner and provide important insight, critique and feedback on the methods of teaching and learning through Humanities as a 21st century student.

David Hatch, On The Trail of Godot
I have a mystery on my hands. Last year, while researching another project in the Trinity College, Dublin archives of the student journal, TCD: A College Miscellany, I stumbled upon a short play entitled "The Long Road" which appears above the pen name Martin Allen. All the contributors to the journal use pen names, so identifying the author presents a mystery. The more significant unknown, however, is why this one-page play reads like a précis of Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot, which was not composed until 1949. We have a lonely road, two tramps, a bog, and two acts that are nearly identical. Although Beckett published in this journal as a Trinity student and created his own pseudonym, Martin Allen cannot be a Beckett pen name, since Beckett did not begin his education at Trinity until eight years after the Allen play was written. The similarities between this play and Beckett's play are, however, too strong to be coincidental. With this project I will seek to answer significant questions relating to this play. First, who is "Martin Allen"? What other "Allen" contributions appear in the journal and what clues can they give us about his identity? Second, how does Allen's identity offer plausible scenarios for how Beckett might have encountered this play? Finally, and most importantly, since the Beckett estate has never allowed access to the Waiting for Godot manuscript, what is the significance of the similarities between the two texts?

Zane Johnston, Misfits, Outcasts, and Gothic Tension in the Modern American Short Story
An examination of modern American short stories written by various authors after WWII reveals a common unstated interest-to explore cultural tensions that possess the possibility to lead to gothic violence. These cultural tensions, simmering under the surface of quotidian life, speak to the irrational aspects of human nature, and repressed and lingering animal instincts. Many of these short stories, in expressing or implying latent violence, blur the line between reality and dreams, suggesting dark, unconscious desires have the potential to cross over into the real world. For those writing after the two world wars, there seems to be an unspoken consensus that the civility of the "civilized" world is a façade. Returning to an exploration of the sinful nature of humankind, determinism, and the allegorical health of the nation, modern American writers recall Nathaniel Hawthorne's "My Kinsman, Major Molineux," "The Minister's Black Veil," and other uncanny tales. Using the figure of the alienated outcast or misfit, Shirley Jackson and Joyce Carol Oates rework American gothic tradition, finding new ways to create ambivalence and deform reality, stylistically (doubling), thematically (crime and guilt), and symbolically (history and myth), to demonstrate American culture is just as vulnerable to fascism, madness, and dehumanization.

Orellana Johnson, Multicultural Perspectives in the Academic Setting
There is a lack of cultural awareness in most of the required English classes. There are classes that specifically have a multicultural agenda, but students have to enroll in these classes, separately. The problem here is that most of these classes are only being offered once a year, or even, not at all, for a variety of reasons. By offering more multicultural themes in more of the general English classes, we can diversify the curriculum and have the professors implement these perspectives in their coursework.
For this project, I conducted a case study at two Northern California schools. The first school that I chose to research and analyze was very diverse, in the student population, and in the faculty. This school is located in the Bay Area, specifically San Mateo. The other school where I conducted the same analysis and research is situated in a traditionally conservative community that has just experienced an influx of diversity over the last ten years. This Elk Grove, California school has strong roots in its agricultural history, and has been struggling with its identity; the traditional 'majority' is quickly becoming the minority.

Erica Burgin, Irish Dance: The Adjudicated Cultural Memory
It is an island and people cloaked in myth and mystery. Little is known until historical records arise in the 5th century. The tales told in these annals illustrate a people subjugated through inhumane treatment. They were invaded and occupied for centuries. Draconian laws dictated their employment, education, music, and dance. When they finally reclaimed independence, however, aspects of their cultural expressions remained adjudicated. They are the people of Ireland, a people who were classified as sub-human, treated inhumanely, yet who ultimately rose above to reach all of humanity with the distinctive rhythms of Irish step dance.Irish step dance offers a fascinating study in the humaneness of adjudicated cultural expressions. Various groups throughout history have attempted to control and shape the Irish dancing body, yet despite, or perhaps because of, these attempts, Irish step dance strikes a chord in human bodies across the world. A close examination of the form and how adjudication has affected its development reveals the level of control placed around this dance form. This case study opens the question: does adjudication play a humane role in cultural expressions, or is it merely an extension of past suppressions and inhuman treatment reincarnated in a different form?

Lauren Mendoza, Internal Models of Ambivalent Community in Sandra Cisneros' "Caramelo"
This presentation will discuss Sandra Cisneros's use of metafiction in her construction of a transgressive text in which the protagonist is able to escape the many cultural limitations encountered by female latinas through the author's exploration of the many "historias" comprising the Latino community. Cisneros's use of mise-en-abyme confronts the paradox of community through the framework of the ambivalent community's dialectic model. The author's textual model of transgressing from a master narrative to a collection of "historias," without claiming the master narrative's privilege to singular truth, serves to develop her theory of identity formation and community. The author has created a new dialogic space with possibilities for competing voices to have their individual views validated without denying the cultural ties that bond them, ultimately enabling each individual to come to hold their own autonomous views about the "truth" of their history and community. Cisneros' use of mis-en-abyme, her storylike representation of the world with the collectively woven rebozo, thus affords us the opportunity to confront the contradictory elements that constitute historical experience, disengage from static "truth", and nurture critical analysis of the complexities of history and community.

Laura Moorhead, Recasting the Textbook as a Collaborative Collection of Historical Narratives and Cultural Heritage Through Primary Documents, Humanistic Methods, and Interactive, Touch-based Devices
The history textbook may be the best - if not most notorious - example of static, one-size-fits-all learning. Conventional wisdom and textbook publishers suggest that there is "one true history and one best way to teach it." Students often learn through a hodgepodge of facts, dates, and seemingly key figures who are typically older white males with European roots. The stories and relevance of these men are increasingly far removed from today's student. However, professional historians rely on "historical thinking" as a method for developing an understanding about the relationships of peoples and events in the past. This project considers a recent effort to help nearly 100 students at a California high school piece together documents using historical thinking as a way to encourage them to consider multiple perspectives and find ways to make them relevant to them personally. The project brings archival material from the Hoover Archives, the National Archives, and other institutions, as well as the historical records of students and their families. The project examines how technology might help teachers and students value and access primary-source documents as a way to consider their cultural heritage, broaden their historical understanding, and explore multiple perspectives regarding historical events.

Suzette Henke, Virginia Woolf and the Art of Modernist Prose Elegy
"A new-by Virginia Woolf. But what? Elegy?" (Diary 3:34)
Both personal bereavement and cultural trauma are implicit motifs in Virginia Woolf's To the Lighthouse, composed as an elegy mourning the loss of her mother in 1895, as well as the death of her father in 1904 and of her brother Thoby in 1906. Woolf insisted that several earlier novels might also be classified as prose elegies: The Voyage Out mourning a woman artist cut off in her prime; and Jacob's Room, a novel proleptically envisaging the death of Jacob Flanders, a young man sacrificed in battle after imbibing a Cambridge classical mythos celebrating patriotic death in battle. . Interpreting her experience of composing To the Lighthouse as a work of "scriptotherapy," Woolf claimed the cathartic equivalent of Freudian abreaction, accomplishing for herself "what psycho-analysts do for their patients" through the healing genre of modernist prose elegy. After co-editing a collection of essays on Virginia Woolf and Trauma, I've come to agree with Karen Levenbeck's argument in Virginia Woolf and the Great War that the cultural catastrophe of global conflict indelibly scarred and virtually shaped Woolf's modernist aesthetic.

Laurel Schmuck, Tolstoy's Re-Creation of the Human and the Animal in "The Kreutzer Sonata"
In Leo Tolstoy's late story, "The Kreutzer Sonata," a discourse of "the animal versus the human" pervades the rhetoric of the narrator, who was cast, by Tolstoy himself in his afterword, as an approximate mouthpiece for Tolstoy's own late ideology about human behavior. The positive and negative animal traits that men and woman develop in their sexual relationships with one another are portrayed with a deep ambivalence throughout the story. Tolstoy channels the lexicon of the Biblical creation story to explore the position of woman as "helper" to man (in place of animals) and in order to refute his own former belief in monogamous Christian marriage by replacing God's command to "be fruitful and multiply" with his own call to global celibacy and his belief in woman's position as man's "helper" in perfecting society on earth. Tolstoy builds a gendered argument about what is human and what is animal with the hypothesis that women possess positive animal traits that are spoiled by her human qualities, making her something in between human and animal, a hybrid Tolstoy believes is below even the animal in moral quality. An exploration of Tolstoy's model of the animal in humans in this story illuminates much about his views on the place of women in society, an issue often debated in regard to his earlier novel, "Anna Karenina." Finally, the musical sonata allegro form, and Beethoven's "Kreutzer Sonata" itself, also come into play in Tolstoy's ideology as represented in this story. The animal qualities of music and art in general were something Tolstoy thought much of in his exposition of his views on art and its role in society in "What is Art?" An examination of these various threads in relation to "The Kreutzer Sonata" reveals Tolstoy's ambivalent treatment of "the animal versus the human" in this work, which can help to illuminate the role these ideas played in Tolstoy's late thought about the essential qualities of both humanity and the animal.

Morgan Mandriota, Frankenstein, Sympathy for the Creature: Humanity in the Monster versus the Savage in the Human
What is a monster but something incompatible with the human perception of what is "normal?" It is the monster who is incomparable to the human standard, for he does not possess the same qualities, whether it stems from an ugly appearance, a strange stature, an unnatural speed of mobility or an aberrant level of intelligence. In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, the text compels readers to define, or redefine, what it means to be human. The characters of Robert Walton, Victor Frankenstein and his Creature all possess and express values that push us to analyze and ultimately to identify the "monstrous" and the "human." By comparing and contrasting these three characters, we are then able to categorize Robert Walton and Victor Frankenstein as "monsters," and the creature as "human." In this essay, I will give evidence as to how Victor Frankenstein's "daemon" creature possesses the most "human" characteristics of them all. I will further give evidence as to why Victor Frankenstein and Robert Walton are actually the two "monsters" of the story, as they exclude and isolate the good-intentioned, innocent-hearted creature into a miserable, "wretched" existence whose fate is tragically misunderstood.

Wynn Yarbrough, Work and Family Identity in African-American Children's Poetry
Much work has been done on the issues of working class representations in literature, particularly in regards to industrialism and its effects on class and status. But the field of children's literature has not investigated work and family on children's poetry, in general. In particular, there is little scholarship on representations of family and work in African American children's poetry. This presentation will examine how family and work are represented in the children's poetry of Gwendolyn Brooks, Lucille Clifton, Langston Hughes, and Wynton Marsalis.

Melanie Hinton, The Monstrous Multicultural
In a time when the terms "diversity" and "multiculturalism" have been drained of much of their meaning, colleges and universities are still left with the problem of advocating tolerance and outfitting students for success in a globalized world. Multicultural studies, while necessary, often meets with adverse reactions from students who have grown up in a world that values diversity often to the point of creating its own issues. One viable approach to this double-edged problem is to utilize different culture's supernatural and folkloric traditions. Western culture's history of the supernatural, monsters, and the monstrous provide a unique and valuable approach to teaching multiculturalism. Vampires, ghosts and zombies, themselves elements of specific cultural traditions, have historically been co-opted in literature, film and popular culture to address anxiety about the clash of cultures. Guided explorations of these "other" figures can provide awareness of current diversity issues and facilitate discussions of what constitutes "other" and the misguided concept of "normal." This presentation aims at demonstrating an approach to multicultural studies that uses these supernatural icons to move discussions of diversity into the twenty-first century.

Roberta Rosenberg, Service Learning and Literary Studies: A Pedagogical History
Although most other fields of humanities are represented in Edward Zlotkowski's 21 volume Service Learning in the Disciplines, published by the American Association of Higher Education, the series did not include a volume in literary studies. Although a number of literature professors have published articles on literature and service learning and many leading scholars have suggested a need for the "public humanities" in literary studies, there is no published history of service learning and literary studies and only one edited collection of "community-based learning" and literature. For this reason Professors Roberta Rosenberg and Laurie Grobman approached the Modern Language Association with a proposal to write a pedagogical history and edit a collection of essays on "Service Learning and Literary Studies." After two years of work with 20 authors, the volume will be published by MLA in 2014 and I would like to speak about the pedagogical history of service learning and the "public humanities" in literary studies as well as provide an overview of the 18 chapters that will be published in every field of American, British and World literatures.

Terry Lee, Radical Pedagogy, Radical Character: Teaching to Students' Character in the Humanities
In the humanities, perhaps especially in literature classes, the study of character plays a central role in student reading and writing, yet the character of the students themselves is often overlooked. "Character is that which reveals an agent's moral habit," Aristotle writes in The Poetics, by what one "choose[s] or avoid[s]." Why not have students apply their analytical and close-reading skills to their own character, for instance, analyzing what motivates them to select and spend time with a certain work? This paper will use the insights of reader-response theory and analytical psychology to suggest that having students select a text that is meaningful to them and analyzing not only a character's motivation, but their own, will produce a full spectrum of probing and even revelatory student work. As Mark Bracher writes, students "come with implicit (and sometimes explicit) questions such as: What should I do with my life? What's the point of it all? Why am I here? How can I give meaning to my life?" Students certainly do need to learn what we have to offer, such as skills in character analysis, but they also need time to practice them on the one character with whom they will be spending their entire lives.

Jane Collins, Dan Rubado, The New Game in Town: Video Gaming as an Emerging Literary Form and the Challenges of Digital Literacy
The impact of digital gaming on modern culture is difficult to overstate. Far from a passing phase, digital games have evolved over the past five decades from simple experimental pastimes to deep, intricate interactive stories that, like any evolving literary form, require specialized literacy to fully analyze. As digital games are used to explore complex themes of morality, social justice, interpersonal relationships, and psychological motivation, the need to understand the medium at an academic level increases.
Much like film and graphic novels before them, digital games have evolved from simple beginnings to encompass a wide variety of forms and genres. This panel presentation is not intended to determine whether all video games possess literary value; rather, our targeted research has explored the work that literary scholars have begun to publish on digital gaming and digital literacy (an ability to play games that is necessary before one can "read" or analyze them).
The focus of this panel will be to present an overview of the existing academic discourse on video gaming as literature and to explore the implications that this emerging art form has for the humanities and the culture at large.

Daniel Kirjner, Between Mikolka's Mare and the Hottentot Venus: Gender and Species relationships in the social creations of life and death
In "Crime and Punishment" by Fyodor Dostoyevsky, the narrative of a dream draws attention: Mikolka seeing that your mare is no more capable of supporting the work assigned to her, kills her publicly and ritualistically in the middle of street, and carries a ambiguous spectacle of death and entertainment to passersby who celebrate the sacrifice of the nonhuman. Outside the context of fiction, in the annals of history resides the figure of the Hottentot Venus: a black slave brought from South Africa to Europe, where she was constrained to perform a show in which she was exposed in a cage and induced to behave like a wild animal. In both cases, dominant male figures defined, markedly, the social outlines of the sexuality, life and death of beings subjected to their yokes. In the relations between both cases, questions emerge within the Gender Studies: is it possible to see the Mikolka's Mare as a female figure subjected to a male one? Did the Hottentot Venus would have been a victim of speciesism? The present study aims to explore the boundaries of the concepts of Gender, when facing the new challenges brought by the Animal Studies.

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